Different paradigms in the single study provide an opportunity for the researcher to use variety of approaches and designs so that the study will compile both the authenticity and genuine information. Allen Rubin & Earl Babbie (2011) again state the importance of multi-paradigms in the research study. They argue:-
According to (Hechter & Kanazawa, 1997) rational choice theory is, "an intrinsically multilevel enterprise. It strives for social consequences on the foundation of both social circumstance and individual action." Nevertheless, the records and their elucidation remain at the collective level, for the theory does not endeavor to explain the actions of a rational person in a specific situation. Rational choice theorists consider both macro- and micro-level features to be significant contributing factors of outcomes, but empirical findings emphasized more on structural factors for methodological explanations related to limitations on quantitative measurement of individual values and reasoning (Hechter & Kanazawa 1997:193). Sociological rational choice theorists on the other hand take into account individual cognitive practices and values.
The meaning from the definition is that the social occurrences and categories the uses in everyday dialogue have an existence that that is independent or separate from actors Bryman and Bell (2007, p. 21). Hair et al (2007, p.153) puts up an argument that states “it is quantitative approaches which provide objectivity in that hypothesis that are tested.” Bryman and Bell agrees with this thought and add that objectivism looks more at culture and subculture as an
Research means search for facts, answers to questions and solutions to the problem. It is a purposive investigation and an organized inquiry. It seeks to find an explanation to an unexplained phenomenon to clarify the doubtful facts and to correct the misconceived facts. The term ‘Research’ should be used in a technical sense as an academic activity. (C.R Kothari, 2009 ) According to Clifford Woody Research consists of: • Defining and redefining problems.
Brookfield (1993) explained the importance of the culture and the politics in the formation of self while Brockett and Hiemstra (1991) identified the learner self direction as personality construct. Brookfield explained the importance of the culture to the formation of the self else “it is all too easy to equate self-direction with separateness and even selfishness" (Brookfield, 1993, p.239). This is the fact that the reality of SDL depends on each individual personal reality which leads to the existence of multiple realities. The reality of SDL resides in each person which makes the reality is more internal and need to be extracted in order to be much understood . Each individual personality is co-constructed through the interaction of different internal and external factors.
Primary research methodology Research methodology It is a science of studying how research is to be carried out. Essentially, the procedures by which researchers go about their work of describing, explaining and predicting phenomena are called research methodology. It is defined as the study of methods by which knowledge is gained. Its aim is to give the work plan of research. ( Rajasekar, Philominathan & Chinnathambi,2013).
Therefore, ethical and methodological issues may arise from qualitative research and as such to demonstrate the legitimacy of Qualitative research, it is important to integrate rigour and trustworthiness. Potential ethical issues and methodological issues identified There is the need to take into consideration ethical issues that may arise from conducting qualitative research since this method of research is an interpretation made by the researcher from statements made by the participants that illustrate new thoughts of the topic under investigation. Researchers are governor
The research process starts with asking at least one question about a specific phenomenon of interest, the research question will help a researcher to direct attention, thoughts, efforts, in deciding on the most suitable approach to answer the question and then make sense of the phenomenon of interest (Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2009). To ensure that others appreciate the results of the research, a researcher needs to explain the philosophical approach that has been used in answering the research question that in essence helps to validate the research outcome (Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill,
It has basic research objectives for which researchers often use qualitative data and also aimed at exploring all sources of information based on range of evidences and by discovering new ideas. This study is therefore designed to employee a qualitative research paradigm. The reason why I choose to employ qualitative approach is that in qualitative research, the outcomes are not results of statistical processes or other quantitative methods. Qualitative approach offers experiences into social, emotional and experimental phenomena. (SBU, 2014:6) The aim is to gain an impression, to achieve an understanding, to explore characteristics of various environments and cultures and to understand the relationship between various processes.
Popper 's approach is based on the naturalistic idea that society has developed through a process of solving problems using trial and error. The natural and social sciences have been born out of such problem solving and progressed by subjecting potential theories to vigorous testing and criticism. Falsified theories are rejected. Popper calls for a society which is conducive to such problem solving, a society which permits bold theorizing followed by unfettered criticism, a society in which there is a genuine possibility of change in the light of criticism: an open society. ADVANTAGES OF CRITICAL RATIONALISM According to Higgs and Smith (2000:31)It helps us to question the authority and it give us the idea about if you bring this problem how can it be solved, what can be done etc.