The SEM images of the ramie fiber with nano-hybrid coating are shown in Fig. 7. The images of ramie fiber treated with SDS/nano-silica (1wt%), APS/nano-silica (1wt%), and GPS/nano-silica (1wt%) indicated the appearance of nano-silica on the fiber surface as compared to the untreated fiber. The nano-silica grafted fiber surface showed an uneven surface in the SEM image with high magnification. It is clearly observed that the nano-silica particles increased the fiber surface roughness and uniformly deposited on the fiber surface.
The DTA curve was correspond material and reference material using difference temperature studied for the both time and temperature measurement. Its change temperature was determined DTA curve for change physical and chemical states and peaks detected DTA signal. This measurement most predominant tool is solid state physics and crystalline chemistry, such as used to water crystallization, study phase change, oxidation and reduction of material. The Thermal analysis was most used identify melting and decompose point, thermal stability, polymerization and glassity formation region, purity and reactivity. [rajesh sir paper
The word nanotechnology is new, but it’s existence of the functional devices and structure of nanofluid devices are not new in this world. In 1905, experimental data on diffusion theory showed that the molecule has nanometer diameter, which is considered as a notable landmark in the scientific history of nanotechnology. Since solid particles possess higher thermal conductivity, these nanofluids have thermal conductivities several times higher than that of convention fuels. Several types of nanoparticles can be employed for nanofluid preparation, including metals such as gold, copper and silver and also metal oxides such as Al2O3, CuO. TiO2, Fe3O4.
In XRD, it is observed that amorphous nature of dye films increases with fluence and hence aggregates of dye molecules spread homogeneously on the substrate after irradiation .The absorption spectroscopy and photoconductivity results show maximum absorption and minimum photoresistivity at lowest fluence . The properties of the dye films such as increase in amorphous nature, increase in absorption peak area and marginal increase in photoconductivity are favorable for DSSC
In the sodium iodide test, the alkyl halide is added to sodium iodide in acetone. In this test, primary halides precipitate the fastest while secondary halides need to be heated in order for a reaction to occur. Comparison of the rates of precipitation of the obtained product to standard 1° and 2° bromide solutions will show whether the product is a primary or secondary
In addition to identifying the materials with non-centro symmetric crystal structure, it is also used as a screening technique to identify the materials with the capacity for phase matching. The SHG intensity from the material is measured as a function of particle size. The continuous increase of SHG intensity with the increase of particle size and remaining essentially constant at particle sizes greater than the coherence length confirms the phase matching the behavior of the material [37-39]. A Q-switched Nd: YAG laser beam of wavelength (λ=1064nm) was used with a pulse width of 8ns and the repetition rate of 10Hz. The second harmonic signal generated in the RLHHB crystal was confirmed from the emission of green radiation from the powdered sample.
The peak position systematically shifts towards lower 2θ values with Na doping (shown in the Fig. 1a), which reveals the successful doping of Na ions into the host matrix. The average crystallite size of Pristine and Na doped CuO were calculated by measuring the full-width at the half-maximum of the most intense diffraction peak (-111) using Debye–scherrer equation, D =0.9λ/ β
The particle size and polydispersity index (PI) of nanostructured lipids were determined by Zetasizer Nano ZS (Malvern Instrument), Malvern, UK) at a temperature of 25±2oC at 90oC to the incident beam applying the principle of photon correlation spectroscopy. Dispersion were diluted with double distilled water to ensure that light scattering intensity, was within the instrument intensity range (Table
Introduction Studying the relationship between a sample’s weight and its temperature is one of most useful analytical methods because this relationship (mass and heat) can provide information about physical process (such as evaporation) and chemical process (such as thermal degradation) of material that causes the material to lose volatile gases. Therefore, to characterize wide verities of materials, thermogravimetric method (TGA) is widely thermal analysis techniques used to measure weight changes of a sample as a function of increasing temperature and time in controlled atmosphere. This method is very significant to study the effect of heat on the changing mass of the sample in which makes TGA ideal for determining thermal or oxidative stabilities
As the concentration increases from 0.1 to 0.3% enrichment ratio and percentage removal too increases from 76.13823 to 89.19364 and 0.97202 to 2.07789. Surfactant concentration of 0.3% was finalized as the optimum surfactant concentration as further increase blows off the entire volume of aqueous solution out of the foam separation column. As the surfactant CTAB concentration increases percentage removal too increases and this is because aqueous phenol is slightly acidic and cationic surfactant attracts anionic phenolate and hence an increased surface activity too. Subsequently as the surface is saturated, further increase in CTAB concentration significantly slow down the rate of drainage of the foam and surplus surfactant can form the micelles. Therefore, the phenol percentage removal reduced to 80.03291 and 1.19199 with increase in the surfactant concentration after a certain level