He studied all sorts of different finches and concluded that each each bird had a different beak that were adaptations to different diets available among the islands. The finches all looked similar but the main difference are their beaks. Divergent evolution states that “one ancestral stock evolves into two species, which continue to evolve and become less and less alike over time”. Darwin’s finches all evolved from a single ancestor that flew to the islands thousands of years ago. There are 13
Migration is a periodic movement of a fish species from one place to another for the purpose of breeding. On the other it may be due to threat in aquatic medium because of escape from strong predator and also to escape from a particular nature of polluted environment. Therefore, migration in fish is related to many parameters, of course fish breeding is one of the important parameters. Heape (1931) has defined migration as “a class of movement which impels migrants to return to the region from which they have migrated”. Generally migration is from feeding ground to breeding ground and vice-versa.
When fish such as the Nassau grouper travel miles to breed, and then return to the exact reef that they left, that cannot be trial and error. From having goldfish from a young age, I was able to notice patterns in their behaviour too, which demonstrated that they could remember, for example the sound of the flake food container would cause them to come to the surface of the water for food. The common goldfish Carassius auratus, has the same external anatomy as all fish. The lateral line is extremely sensitive to the fish’s surrounding environment and can
I am going to tell you all about whale sharks’ adaptations. First, whale sharks diet is that they do not attack They do eat shrimp. Second, there habitat is in the warmer areas. Some have been spotted in the cooler warters. Last there habits they are solitary creatures.
Particle swarm optimization was discovered for the first time with the aid of Kennedy in 1995. Particle swarm algorithm simulates the behavior of law birds foraging and courtship system. In real existence, we most often see flocks of birds flying in the sky, and realize that birds’ flying will comply with particular principles. They consistently trade the role and direction of flight. According to their overall information and by way of adjusting the velocity and function, they obtain the nice role of the individual and be certain that the entire teams keep the optimum
Feeding on multiple species of algae, as well as organic suspended waste from sewage outfalls (Cilliers, 1999).Sea urchins are significantly recognised within the ecology of the kelp forest ecosystems, as their role within the ecosystems as grazers (Tarr etal,1996).The abundance of sea urchins are controlled by predators such crabs, sea otters fish and lobster(Tarr etal,1996).In south Africa the main predators of sea urchins are lobster ( Jasis lanandii) and star fish. The increase in Sea urchin abaundance is caused by the decline in predators an increase of recruitment and the immigration of adults(Tegner and Dayton,2000)Urchins are known to eradicate kelp populations with the absence of predators. The absence of predators causes a bloom in sea urchins numbers with later leads to the loss of algae species. Sea urchins have an important role in the development of abalone along the South African coast, as juvenile abalone uses the urchins as shelter from predation. The sea urchin Parechinus angulosus and abalone Haliotis midae.According to Tarr,etal (1996)the number of juvenile abalone increase with an increased amount of sea urchins present at study sites.
Nowadays, most of the optimization algorithms are based on the natural behavior of the swarms of insects like flock of birds, ants, bees, etc. This concept is known as Swarm Intelligence (SI) as it represents the behavior of swarms of insects. This is because the classical optimization
The GA simulates this process through coding and special operators. A genetic algorithm maintains a population of candidate solutions, where each candidate solution is usually coded as binary string called a chromosome. The best choice of coding has been shown to be a binary coding. A set of chromosomes forms a population, which is evaluated and ranked by fitness evaluation function. The fitness evaluation function play a critical role in GAs because it provides information how good each candidate.
Aerodynamic Principles of Flapping Wings The aerodynamic principles of the aircraft with flapping wings or the ornithopters are different from the principles of the normal aircraft (in which the wings are fixed). For the normal aircraft, there is only one component or one source of the airflow passing through the aerofoil which is the airflow that caused by the forward motion of the aircraft. It acts in the direction that is parallel to the flight path but in the opposite direction. In this case, the force that acts perpendicular to the airflow will be equal to the lift force. However, for the ornithopters, there are two airflows passing through its aerofoil.