Queer women frequently felt unsecure and disgrace toward their sexuality in the mid twentieth century greatly influenced by governmental anti-gay policies and the notion of medicalized homosexuality. Changes were seen during the homophile movement in 1950s, queer women fought for their voices to be heard by establishing their organization – Daughters of Bilitis (abbreviated as DOB) – to connect with other lesbians via The Ladder magazine throughout the world and gaining support from well-educated individuals such as a group of San Francisco clergies. During the period, they also battled for their civil and political rights by organizing silent protests against government’s anti-gay policies and challenging the notion of medicalized homosexuality.
Violence is a constant, a catalyst for the cycle of life and death that has existed since the beginnings of life. However, humans have now, and have been, using violence for senseless pain and suffering. __ In James Gilligan’s novel, Preventing Violence, Gilligan discusses that a major cause of violence is feelings of shame, which usually roots from social factors and views of masculinity. Shame, the most common feeling behind violence, is feeling a lack of self-pride and humiliation.
To understand the linkage between sexuality and gender, it is important to reimagine the relationship between sexuality and gender and the rapport they hold with self-identification. Not long ago, sexuality was tied to procreation - becoming the core of one’s identity. Gender had always been tied to biological sex. However, a crisis of gender identity emerged and blurred the gender and sexuality binaries that had become commonplace social facts. A fluidity was created that allowed individuals to not feel the pressure of fitting inside distinct identification categories. Steven Seidman’s Revolt Against Sexual Identity provides anecdotes that describe the liberation that comes with rejecting these norms, “...her identities as transgender, female,
Traditionally not feminine, loves women. Butch women cannot pass as straight, as femme lesbians can. The existence of butch lesbians goes both against and for gender and sexual stereotypes. Specifically, the stereotype of butch lesbians as the masculine counterpart to the feminine femme. As recounted by a butch author, “Straight people call me sir and faggots cruise me.” Masculine women are more likely to be noticed by the outside community than feminine women, because it goes against traditional gender stereotypes in mainstream culture. Considered a betrayal of gender identity: the true lesbian is butch, aggressive, and masculine. Butch lesbians are noteworthy, because in some ways, it is destroying and bolstering heteronormativity. Butch lesbian “stick out like G.I. Joes in Barbie Land” due to gender expression and easily identifiable sexuality at the time. On one hand, the gender expression of a butch lesbian is very different from the femininity established for women, as they do not match the typical housewife ideal. As well, butch lesbians are homosexual, and do not participate in the same type of misogynistic existence as typical straight men. Butch lesbians do not have the same privilege of men, and are kept at a level of disrespect both based on gender and sexuality. Even though stereotypically, butch lesbians are seen as the ‘man’ in lesbian relationships, and expected to fulfill similar emotional and sexual duties. In reality, butch women as personal identities are the bane of heteronormativity, because masculine lesbains oppose traditional gender roles, and are gay. Though, this does not stop the heteronormative binary from existing, and prevailing over other forms of lesbian
In “Bros Before Hos: the guy code” written by Michael Kimmel the difference in response between men and women when asked what it like is to be them is thought of completely different between them. When women were asked the question was pretty irrelevant to them. But when the men were asked they started to describe something called “Guy Code” “the collection of attitudes, values, and traits that together compose what it is to be a man” (pp. 541). This guy code is how men have to carry themselves and if they do not then they are called “pussies” or “gay” again these ideas come from more men maybe fathers, uncles, grandfathers. This “guy code” men have to follow is not just to impress women “Masculinity is largely a homosocial experience: preformed for and judged by other men” (Pp. 543). Men judge other men is a constant cycle. Men are taught how to be men by other men how ever your father was raised is how you are going to be raised. Guy land is an unsafe place while growing up if you do one wrong thing you be called a big list of negative names. “everything that is perceived as gay goes into what we might call the negative playbook of guy land” says Michael Kimmel (pp. 545). This gender role playing thing begins as early as the age of five for men starting with phrases such as “boys don’t cry” this carries out through there middle age years carrying a wide range of rules followed by
C.J. Pascoe, in her book Dude, You’re a Fag, argues that heterosexuality and dominant masculinity are inextricably linked. In order for boys to assert their masculinity, they must comply with the social processes that Pascoe calls “compulsive heterosexuality.” Compulsive heterosexuality builds on the concept of compulsory heterosexuality, a theory coined by researcher Adrienne Rich which refers to heterosexuality as political institution that enforces heterosexuality on women as a means of ensuring male dominance through “physical, economic, and emotional access” (86), and constructs alternative sexualities as “the other.” Compulsive heterosexuality encompases a myriad of sexualilzed gender performances and rituals, not merely to affirm one’s
Resolutions are vehemently being sought to protect schools from possible attacks and to objectively eradicate deadly school shootings altogether. Commonly, security officers are placed in schools in hopes that increased surveillance will inhibit violent outbreaks (Crawford and Burns 2016). Mixed evaluations have been found in association with security officers, while some benefits reportedly transpire, experiences of disparaging consequences remain a regrettable reality as well (Crawford and Burns 2016). Additionally, active shooter drills routinely occur at schools across the nation, however, as Jillian Peterson and James Densley report in their CNN article titled, “The Usual Approach to School Security Isn’t Working,” studies indicate that
“Moreover, young urbanites identify downtown clusters of nightclubs as direct sexual marketplaces, or markets for singles seeking casual encounters with potential sex partners (Laumann et al. 2004).” Based upon the college male population, they rather do their “girl hunt” during the nightlife because they find more singles out at night. Statistics shows that both single male and female attends at least one nightlife entertainment venue such as restaurants, clubs, bars, lounges, etc. “In this article I examine girl hunting—a practice whereby adolescent heterosexual men aggressively seek female sexual partners in nightclubs, bars, and other public arenas of commercialized entertainment.” David Grazian’s article entitled The Girl Hunt: Urban Nightlife and the Performance of Masculinity as Collective Activity, talks about how and why men go out to nightclubs and try and pick up girls. Heterosexual males strategizes their masculinity performance to impress both male and females, as a result, it rises their confidence. The article is reviewed in the context of supporting identity, gender and sexuality, and symbolic interactions.
Over time, the thought patterns of many individuals mould to believe only one perception of what is morally acceptable— a perception that is completely faulty. The ideology of the male body and demeanor is only one of the many societal norms constructed by the media, and it alone can result in mental health fatalities, mass violence, or the mere elimination of self-identity whilst attempting to meet the ever-changing ideals of masculinity. The continuous and stereotypical depiction of masculinity in the media has idealized invulnerability, toughness and physical strength as the sole qualities of a ‘true man’. As a result, the complexity of masculinity is flattened, and immense pressures are placed on individuals to meet requirements that are entirely faulty. According to Katz, cultures, topics, and even genders are not one-dimensional; in order to fully comprehend the meaning the entirety of something, one must look at more than its representation in the media.
In his essay, “The Legacy of Antigay Discrimination” George Chauncey convinces readers that homosexuality discrimination has existed for a long time. Chauncey uses facts and statistics to strengthen his argument on harsh homosexual treatment in the past. Chauncey focuses on the treatment of homosexuals in the past to provide readers on the things they did not know about. For example, banning homosexuality in Hollywood films and American theater, the government, municipal work, and business associations. Chauncey includes how major rights such as freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and freedom of assembly were denied and taken away from homosexuals because back then homosexuality was unacceptable in society. Chauncey constantly refers to
Society tries to create a “perfect” image on people; leading us to believe that if we are not the specific way that we created, we do not fit in. In reality everybody is supposed to create themself, regardless of what society believes. Does what we label others matter? Who are we to judge how others chose to create themselves? In David Crabb’s memoir Bad Kid, Crabb takes the readers through what it was like discovering that he is gay, and how that changed how kids treated him during school. The next part of Crabb’s memoir takes the readers through Crabb overcoming the stereotype and having friends that accept him for being gay, but influence him to start doing drugs. Crabb’s alcohol and drug addiction start to take over his everyday his life,
In the reading by Peter Redman, he raises the argument that the ‘AIDS carrier” becomes the central representation of the HIV epidemic and how the representations of HIV cannot be narrowed down to one cause. In addition, the ‘AIDS carrier’ is represented as monster and the carrier spreads HIV from the deviant subpopulations to the mainstream. Also, AIDS has been connected to social and moral issues and singles out groups like gay men, black people, and young single women. These groups are then viewed as diseased subpopulations and that causes others to feel disgust and panic. The heterosexual men are then afraid to have physical or emotional contact with men in general and that’s why boundaries of heterosexual masculinity were produced.
In discussing the many facets of masculinity among young men, one key issue has been the correlation it has with several developmental concerns. In Michael Kimmel’s 2008 publication “Bros Before Hos: The Guy Code”, he talks about how men believe manhood is really achieved. More specifically, he talks about “Guy Code”, the universal rulebook that all men must follow if they wish to remain in good standing among their fellow man. These rules are taught as early as their toddler years. According to Kimmel, these seemingly standard ways of thinking could lead to something much worse, and ultimately effect their development. He mentions in his article, “Since stakes are so enormous, young men take huge chances to prove their manhood, exposing
Throughout this novel Go tell it on the Mountain; James Baldwin examines the different roles of his characters in the Christian church, in the lives of African-Americans. In the context of the biblical language, gender roles; masculinity and femininity are rendered in indubitable. Because John considers the man in the woman on Sundays through a lens he adopts from things he has “read of in the Bible,” he understands men to be, and become strong or “mighty” whereas he interprets the women’s strength as “patient” and “long suffering.” Just as Florence's use of skin creams makes the real racialized constructions of beauty, so do Elizabeth’s actions make real for John traditional oppositional gender roles; Baldwin again emphasizes the interconnections
Homosexuality was once considered sacred in ancient Rome, albeit being treated poorly since the middle ages. Like this, homosexuality has been suppressed for a long time and thenceforth, the public opinion towards it has been on a downward road until recent years when LGBT groups started stepping up front and coming out along with the increasing controversy towards their rights.