Pathogens In Aquaculture

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Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing food sectors in the world, with an average growth rate of 6.2 % (2002-2012) (FAO, 2014). Increasing global demand for fish and shellfish has intensified the aquaculture practices. Intensive culturing of marine and freshwater organisms has led to the disease outbreak in aquaculture system. These disease can occur in hatcheries, nurseries, larval rearing sections or during any part of the grow-out process. The introduction of pathogens to the system may be through the feed, water, contaminated seeds, utensils or by horizontal transfer. Often cultured fish and shellfish are colonized and infected by microorganisms (Nakai and Park 2002). Many pathogens in aquaculture are opportunistic and may remain undetected until some stress make the animals susceptible to infection. Moreover, aquaculture products are highly susceptible to bacterial infections due to poor management practises non-hygienic and often stressful conditions of cultivation (Muroga 2001; Sapkota et al. 2008). Diseases represent a severe threat to aquaculture productivity and bacteria is a major limiting factor is a major reason for it.
The reduction in terms of losses due to bacterial disease in aquaculture is quite more often achieved by chemotherapy. The antibiotic therapy is one among the a rapid and effective methods to treat or prevent
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Some bacteriophages are composed of a head, containing the nucleic acid, and a tail. At the base of the tail, the virus-specific attachments organs secure the virus to the cell wall. The tail then contracts, inserting a protein tube into the bacterium, creating a ‘needle and a syringe’ to inject a substance. The bacteriophage's nucleic acid then moves from the head through the tube into the bacterium-effecting attachment, penetration, and uncoating in a single

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