Value expectancy model The expectancy is considered as a general concept in psychology, however, conversely in the health literature it is assumed as it is in the real world. In psychology, expectancy theory posits that satisfaction is expressed by a difference between what one received and expected or wanted to receive. However, expectations are made of “cognitive processes” and shaped by “previous experiences”, so it is dynamic, complex beliefs (Bowling et al., 2012). Linder-Pelz theory, value-expectancy model, is based on social-psychological theory as they proposed five social-psychological variables, “occurrences”, “value”, ”expectations”, ”interpersonal comparisons”, and ”entitlement” as determinants of patient satisfaction to explain
The humanistic perspective of personality was theorised by Abraham Maslow who created the Hierarchy of Needs to represent two areas of needs an individual must achieve in order to reach self-actualisation. The two groups are divided by their importance; first is our deficiency needs, separated into four lower levels which are physiological, safety and security, belonging and love, and our esteem needs. The growth needs can only be reached once we have achieved all of our deficiency needs and we have not reverted back a step in our search for self-actualisation. The growth needs Maslow stated are understanding, aesthetic, self-actualisation, transcendence. Carl Rogers, another psychological theorist, originally stated that achievement of self-actualisation
According to my research, Maslow 's hierarchy of needs is a motivational theory in psychology comprising a five tier model of human needs, often depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid. This theory wanted to understand what motivates people. Maslow believed that people possess a set of motivation systems unrelated to rewards or unconscious desires. He stated that people are motivated to achieve certain needs and that some needs take precedence over others. Our most basic need is for physical survival, and this will be the first thing that motivates our behaviour.
All human kind have certain needs which must be fulfilled. Lack of these needs will compel one to take actions to fulfill these needs. Maslow’s hierarchy lists five of these basic needs that all human requires. He said that we have needs that need to be fulfilled in specific order. His hierarchy is rather a motivation than a checklist.
It can be simple for the healthcare professional, to diagnose someone with a medical condition like Diabetes or hypertension. It also seems that most healthcare professionals act in a manner to dispense reading materials, as well as the equipment, whether its medication, a blood pressure cuff, and so on, and “direct” the patient of what they need to do for self-care. Although, there are many other factors that are missing to understand what the person feels has contributed to their condition, which can psychologically impact the person. The nurse can learn from another’s perspective in how they look at their health, and the impact that it has, which can guide the nurse to an approach that is sensitive, and allows a better relationship between the patient, nurse, and physician. As the interview concluded with Thomas, the reality of his condition seemed to not make a large impact for him.
Humanistic psychologist Abraham Maslow put forward his theory of the hierarchy of needs through the shape of a pyramid. He suggested that each step in this pyramid became of importance when the needs of an individual are not met. To progress upwards in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs one has to meet each level to a satisfactory standard and when this is happens he claims that a person has reached a point of self-actualisation. All the necessities he mentioned had to be met before this could be realised however. He believed that everyone was capable of attaining self-actualisation but unfortunate life experiences do disrupt a person’s progress and they can go up and down the pyramid when these unlucky moments present themselves in life (ClassNotes, 2014).
PROBLEM SOLUTION With patients today using the threat of reporting low satisfaction rates in the hopes of receiving faster or higher quality care, they seem to have taken the upper hand in some of the decision making of what takes place in the healthcare world today (Sullivan). But is it really the survey results that will make the drastic changes that are needed? Instead of questioning whether providers spend enough time with patients, ensuring that the provider gives the patient the option of which medical treatment or drug is best for them, or simply having the patient rate the provider from 0-10, zero being “worst provider possible” to ten being “best provider possible,” (Ganey) patients should simply be asked to leave comments or concerns about their visit. It is understandable and unfortunate that not everyone in the healthcare field can do their job professionally and appropriately, and those people should be reported.
This theory is proposed by Araham Harold Maslow by year 1954. There are 5 different needs in this theory which consists of: Physiological; Safety; Belongingness; Need for esteem and Self-actualization. Maslow believed that a man being motivated by the needs he wants to satisfy. So, the fundamental needs must be satisfy in order to begin motivating behavior (Adiele and Abraham, 2013). 1) Physiological Physiological needs is fundamental and most basic need for human survival.
These demands are ranked in the order that they most preoccupy the individual. To illustrate, an individual is not preoccupied by physiological needs such as hunger or thirst, he is then free to seek out that which gives him a sense of safety; moreover, if the individual isn’t preoccupied with finding a safety, warmth, and shelter, he can spend time time seeking out companionship (Huitt, 2007). Maslow proposes 8 levels of motivational needs, the first four, termed the deficiency needs, need to be fulfilled before the second four, the growth needs, can be adressed. The deficiency needs are: bodily needs, the need for safety, social needs, and self esteem. The Growth needs are: the search for understanding, the need to be aesthetically pleased, self actualization, and finally, self-transcendence, which is the highest level, where one has acquired wisdom (Huitt,
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Countless psychologists have theorized about human behavior, but few theories have had the impact that Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs has had. Maslow was looking to explain the motivation behind people’s actions. He developed his theory to represent the needs people need to meet to be comfortable in their living situations. Based on Maslow’s theory, phycologists can determine why people partake in the actions they do. For example, people who do not feel belonging and love as children are more likely to join gangs or other organizations to gain a sense of belonging.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. This theory lies on the premise that people can rarely achieve their full potential without having met their basic needs; if the target population lacks of basic needs, any intervention that does not address this particular issue will fail. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is based on the physiological and psychological needs. Once these needs are covered, we will be able to engage someone to change habits in order to achieve our goals. It is highly important to recognize the target population and their basic needs.
Whereas, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs were also divided into different stages from the physiological needs, safety needs, love or belongings, esteem and then to the stage of self-actualization (Maslow,
Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is displayed as a pyramid and is built on a foundation of basic needs that must not only be met but satisfied before higher levels of the needs are met. On the bottom of the pyramid are physiological needs and these are required to sustain life such as breathing, water, food and shelter to mention a few. Once these are met, people can move onto the next level of need which is safety. Safety needs can be financial, medical, safe environment and job security. Next on the pyramid are social needs which include friendship, belongingness, love and acceptance.
Five Levels in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and How They Influence Us Abraham Maslow, who was an American psychologist created a hierarchy of needs. There are five levels, with the basic needs at the bottom. He explains that if the basic needs are not satisfied we cannot move up the pyramid, despite a few instances (Lilienfeld et al., 2016). The first level is physiological needs which is satisfying hunger, thirst, and fatigue. Physiological needs influence us because if we are not satisfying our hunger, we can lose weight, or be malnourished.