One of the obvious and main criticisms of Varisco about Said’s Orientalism, is the absence of “real” Orient voices in his book. As Varisco rightly observes, “The force of Said’s argument persuades in large part because the real Orient is all absence” (55). This is for instance clearly visible in the sources Said uses when he talks about Napoleon conquering Egypt. He chooses sources from Napoleon and French travelers, yet the voices of the people of Egypt itself are missing. According to Varisco there are sources that represent these Egyptians, but Said “simply assumes them to be mute”
Arguing “Political and economic models were borrowed from the West to replace the Islamic political and economic systems after independence from colonial rulers in the mid-twentieth century, creating overcrowded cities lacking social support systems, high unemployment, government corruption, and a growing gap between rich and poor. Rather than leading to a better quality of life, Westernization led to the breakdown of traditional family, religious, and social values. Many Muslims blame Western models of political and economic development as the sources of moral decline and spiritual malaise” (Religion of Islam). This is just a short list of the many problems the Islamic world faced because of European Colonialism. Theorists needed to find solutions and the two new streams that emerged each had their own pros and cons.
Said is very critical about how the Western scholars have studied Eastern countries because Orientalists have books that are only focusing on the Orient and the Orientalist as their main authority even today, the Orient being the Easterners and the Occident being the Westerners. This therefore leads to Western novelists, theorists, poets promoting the distinction or difference between the East and West and creating theories, social
To explain that Cavanaugh brings in the example of Bernard Lewis (once heavily criticised by Edward Said in his Orientalism), who in 1990 has coined the term “clash of civilisations”, speaking about Western and Muslim societies (SOURCE). For Lewis, the Muslim confrontation with the Western world “ultimately comes down to a deep struggle against secularism that is explicit and conscious, and a war against modernity that is largely unconscious” (Cavanaugh 196). While the rise of religious fundamentalism is indeed caused by the modernity and is an integral part of it (Cook), it is by far not the case with the Islam and Islamic societies in general, but Lewis made no distinctions. Then Cavanaugh turns to Jurgensmeyer, for whom religion is problematic since it “escalates merely mundane war into cosmic war, absolutizes the conflict, demonises opponents,” and demands a “total victory” (Cavanaugh 199). Cavanaugh disagrees with both Lewis and
Precious Knowledge presents the controversial issue of the integration of ethnic studies courses in schooling.Ethnic studies is the study of cultural, racial, ethnic, and gender differences in America. In this essay, I will argue Ethnic studies courses should belong in P-12 schooling, because the classes endorse ideals of America. In addition, people rely on the courses to learn critical thinking of the empowerment of identity. Although advocates for the abolishment of ethnic studies courses argue that the courses create a sense of contempt towards America through racism and are not remarkably significant, they do not fully comprehend the success from ethnic studies and that by taking away the classes, they only promote their fear of students disliking America. Ultimately, ethnic studies promote American ideals, create identity, and only create contempt when being constrained from these courses.
Henzell-Thomas (2004) identified the major problems which were perpetuated by Islamophobia and one of them being “the misleading association of Islam with specific cultural identities and practices, especially Asian and African. Sajid (2005) further reiterates this by “Islamophobia is a new form of racism whereby Muslims, an ethno-religious group, not a race, are nevertheless, constructed as a race.” The media in western hemispheres have been responsible for the misunderstanding of the Islamic faith as it is constantly depicted as a religion that condones acts of violence, terror and political unrest. It encourages the thoughts of individuals that Western culture is superior to that of Islamic culture. The media also fails to differentiate between Islamic beliefs and Islamic extremists, who are two different things which also facilitates misconceptions about their beliefs. Eduardo Bonilla-Silva asserts that the bigger picture is
Their proclivity through the risk is often push them into the conflict against established movement organizations, especially in religion. In the term of movements, radicalism is an upshot of the close relations or connections among activist or the actor and development of their identity which positioned them in ignoring the “normal” ways to reach and pursue social changes in society. Radicals are being seen because their dedication and their fearless through their actions, often risking themselves for their passions in order to spark a wider protest. In the other side, radical is also being ignored by the society regarding to their confrontations and their violence. Confrontations and violence can gather and collect negative perspective from media, bring their campaign plans, and misunderstanding or wrong perspective trough the values and
It is essential to endure as a primary concern that Forster 's perception of the East-West relationship has all the earmarks of being concrete and practical, as opposed to emotive. He trusts that the shallow contempt of the Orientals for the colonizers is not sufficient to push them away. After the trial, Aziz decides to leave the pioneer state. He needs to move to where there is no English control. Yet, Aziz 's disdain can 't pave the way for a perpetual answer to this issue.
Contrary to the literature that presents mixed marriages as a sign that differences between groups are becoming smaller and smaller, historically, and currently in the UAE, they have been perceived as a threat to society and social cohesion. As they crossed racial, ethnic and national borders risking the loss of the unique identity of a certain race or ethnicity (Hart; 2015). Syed Ali in his book Dubai: Gilded Cage, states that intermarriage in the UAE has been a phenomenon even before the oil-driven modern transformations. Moreover, in 1973 the late Sheikh Zayed AlNahyan commented on intermarriage saying they have a negative effect on society and they are discouraged. With that statement and the establishment of the Marriage Fund, which aims to encourage Emiratis to marry other Emiratis by granting them funds to support them and not granting funds to those who marry Non Emiratis (Marriage Fund; 2015), intermarriages decreased in the UAE.
Boko Haram uses uneducated people to their purposes and does everything possible to maintain people uneducated. Adolf Hitler said in his magnum opus of Nazism „Mein Kampf“, that propaganda must not be rational and based on science, instead of that it should influence the feelings of the large amount of the frustrated individuals. If done right, it´s easy to get the attention and support of a large number of people ( Paul 2005, 112). Boko Haram uses methods described by Pakistani journalist Abdul Ala Maududi who was the first to create the theoretical framework for islamist terrorism. Maududi emphasized fear which the islamic values and tradition will extinct because of the western secular influence.