Chauvinism and Feminism in Handmaid’s tale Introduction This paper explores the relations between patriarchy and class in the context of a dystopian society which is very well depicted by Attwood. In this sense, how patriarchy is used against women. Debates appeared when society acquired language and now a days is still a hot debate. Radical, feminists point men as the 'main enemy’ and they say that, patriarchy is considered as a form of domination imposed by men on women. Feminists are dealing with how to understand the relations between patriarchy and how to confront, oppose male chauvinism in the ruling class.
“We’re in a world where masculinity, especially with these big spectacle movies, is often pushed by rippling six packs and forcing an image down someone’s throat trying to prove masculinity. Whereas I think true masculinity comes from having a strong sense of self.” This quote by Theo James emphasizes the central concerns of men and also stresses the negative impact in which men in society are affected as to what or should be the “ideal” man. According to R. W. Connell, his gender order theory which involves the concept of Hegemonic Masculinity explains that masculinity is defined as a practice that legitimizes men 's dominant position in society and justifies the subordination of women, and other marginalized ways of being a man. However, Janet Brown and Barry Chevannes conducted an investigation based on a gender socialization research and their main idea of masculinity is the religious doctrine of male authority, hyper masculinity based on male sexuality and the logically determined measures of male power whether in the home, workplace or relations in society. The ideal definition of masculinity impacts and increase the concerns of Caribbean men in adverse ways such as resulting in men feeling emasculated, male midlife crisis and also the increasing of stereotypes on men and as to what they are to achieve.
In society, it is intimated that men have to possess the masculinity gender and women have to possess the femininity gender. Typically as seen throughout society, men have to possess the masculinity gender. According to society, it is expected that men are to show wisdom in the line of sorrow
According to Pleck (1995) masculinity is being referred to, sets of culturally defined principles of masculinity to which men are expected to hold on (Pleck, 1995). Support of the traditional male roles and norms by individuals, groups and society referred to as the masculinity ideology (Levant, 1995). Thompson and Pleck (1986) noted that a particular collection of dimensions upon which some individuals base their notion of masculinity is masculinity philosophy. However, these dimensions are defined as toughness (in the physical as well as the mental and emotional sense), norms related to status and, finally, the anti-femininity norm. While the dimension of toughness refers to the prospect that men need to be strong, experienced and capable of solving their emotional problems in an appropriate way, the status dimension is defined as labour, economic and professional success, and it is generally associated with a high income (Thompson & Pleck,
Masculinity is what men do rather than what or how they are. To be considered male, men must enact culturally accepted male roles or rather perform masculinity scripts. By doing so, they become agents that actively construct gender. Gender is constructed through complex interactions between men and women. Men and women contribute to the maintenance of the status quo by reenacting gender roles that they acquired through socialization.
The idealism established and supported by violence is the backbone of the themes. Distinctively, the values between traditional Latin men and women waver because of the pre-established cultural ideology. Inherently, the males within the storyline hold an exaggerated sense of power expressed in a multitude of manners; most commonly being through committing acts of sexual, emotional, and physical violence. Women were the victims of these acts as they were considered to be inferior to men, mere objects to possess and display superiority over. Acceptance of absence of power to men was taught through conditioning instilled by violence.
While Medea is set in a male-dominated society, there are still several inconstancies and gaps, which enrich the play and make it unconventional and uncomfortable for conservative audiences. The most obvious example is the fact that Medea kills her own children, a deeply unfeminine and unmotherly act, a complete rebellion on the society. A more subtle form of non-conformity is exemplified by Medea’s inconsistency when obliging to her husband and her king. Euripides’ use of contradiction and non-conformity within the play reveal that it is a story of empowerment to women. He subtly and obviously tells this story throughout the play, specifically using Medea’s actions and her relationships with other characters as platforms to get his message across.
Every aspect of society works not only to gain control over those of low social standing, but also show a significantly great amount of prejudice against women. In this way, the societies enforce their patriarchy onto its citizens, allowing modern time readers to draw contrasts between their own societies and the ones in the novels that oppose ideas of freedom through indoctrination, using education as a form of empowerment and violence to evoke fear. Men are only regarded the monarchs of society once women have been demeaned. This is evidenced through Attwood’s use of animalistic language to display the false power the Commander holds over Offred. Upon their first meeting, Offred states that she thought ‘he might be toying, some cat-and-mouse routine, but now [she] thinks that his motives and desires weren’t obvious even to him’.
William Shakespeare 's The Tempest depicts Caliban as a brutish, savage, and monster-like creature, but he is simply misunderstood. Caliban is the subject of one of the various subplots found in the play, also possessing a hunger for revenge. Being the slave of Prospero, Caliban is treated like an animal-like creature by he and all others found on the island, he is intelligent, and constantly being taken advantage of by his master; therefore validating his informal and improper actions. Caliban’s character is described as being deformed, resulting in him being treated with a lack of respect, without being given the chance to prove himself as an equal member of society. In act II scene II, the main point of humor derives from Trinculo’s fascination
against the traditional position of women in Indian society and they try to find their own way on their own choice. His plays mock the unjust values of the patriarchal society which does not care for the feelings of a woman and considers her a subhuman who exists only to serve him with absolute loyalty. Call it Hayavadana, Nagamandala or The Fire and Rain --- these elements are all there to serve the purpose of the dramatist. Exploitation and oppression of women have become a recognized culture of male chauvinism. So, his plays represent the junction point at which women are characterized as enlightened and emancipated with the power of resistance who struggle to overcome the male dominance.