However, male children have to separate from their mothers and identify with their fathers in order to be socialised according to their masculinity. They develop strong ego boundaries and a capability for independent action, objectivity and rational thinking to suit the patriarchal culture. Women are a threat to their independence and male sexuality. Girls are then socialised according to what women are supposed to be seen as, and so they reproduce the same nature that reproduces a male dominance. It is these qualities that make them potentially good mothers, and keep them open to the emotional needs of men.
Reading 1 of The Lenses of Gender by Sandra Lipsitz Bem focused primarily on how society has viewed men and women through looking at the history of religion, theories, philosophies, and law. Bem uses her research to teach readers of the main differences that have historically set men and women apart from one another in the areas of male superiority, biological differences between the male and female bodies, and the roles that the sexes have maintained in cultures. What I found most significant was the general belief throughout all areas of historical research that Bem presented, that men are the “standard” for humans, and women’s ability to be pregnant and have children is extra, or “other” than the standard. Not only did the mentioned cultures
He emphasizes that a rude female will be nothing compared to what perils he has faced in his manly lifetime. With this specific character, Shakespeare represents the male importance of dominating a female and self-promoting masculinity. The Renaissance Era depicted men as the superior sex, and men were eager to emphasize their masculinity and dominance over females, as Shakespeare illustrated in his play Taming of the Shrew. Shakespeare also demonstrates these expected gender roles in Kate’s wedding speech at the end of the play. Kate proceeds to explain how valuable a husband is and how much effort and dedication they offer to their wife and in return the wife is expected to be submissive and servant to her husband.
This interpretation is seen through the way in which the author has used Esther to show the ideology of gender and power. This is emphasised in the text through the way in which Esther embodies the patriarchal values through her beauty and obedience (Hancock, 2012). This belief existed largely in the Tanaka, as the first book states that men were created first and women second, which set up a patriarchal view for the rest of the books. From this setup, many scholars say that although the book of Esther is named after the primary female character, it is “told by a man’s world, but also for a man’s world. That these are not stories of women, but stories of female role models determined and fostered by the strongly developed patriarchal ideology.”
It aims at resisting traditional assumptions of gender (3). In doing so, feminist literary criticism examines how works of literature perpetuate or challenge patriarchal attitudes. In feminism lens, The Hunger Games trilogy by Suzanne Collins’ presents itself as a pro-feminist series It challenges gender stereotypes by presenting a female protagonist; Katniss Everdeen. The book has successfully challenged gender stereotypes by showing that men and women are equal. It is the societal constraints that do not provide a level playing field for both genders.
Bell Hooks, is Gloria Jean’s pen name. Bell Hooks is an American author, socialist, and feminist. Her rhetorical purposes, are to inform and persuade. In her essay she is informing her audience about patriarchy. The definition of patriarchy is “a system of society or government in which the father or eldest male is head of the family and descent is traced through the male line” (Dictionary).
Abstract: Cultural understanding of sexuality is based on the ideas of behavior and attitudes of men and women in a society. Throughout the ages, male body has been cited as aggressive and women’s sexuality is seen as a response to that aggressive male desire, which later on described as a natural phenomenon. Therefore, from social to psychology, most of the critics believe that sexuality is a social constructed. Every age has its specific ideology of being a man; like, Masculinity in 3000 B.C. was defined by the valour and courage, Medieval masculinity was essentially based on Christianity and chivalric, Victorian masculine ideology was marked with responsible, well behaved, domestic, protective and breadwinners of family, Modern masculinity
In Simone de Beauvoir 's The Second Sex, de Beauvoir argues that women have historically been treated as inferiors and secondary to men. Her book is strongly emerging with the second wave of feminism that calls for basic equalities in some social issues such as the rights of women in voting and inheriting. Further, the second wave highlights the struggle of women in sexuality, abortion, domestic violence, and business field. In addition, Simone de Beauvoir argues that, in all cultures, men are able to dominate and as a result, women have surrendered and become subordinate to what society have been dictated them to do. To de Beauvoir, "one is not born, but rather becomes a woman" (de Beauvoir p.).
They argue that this domination and subordination by men is through their controlling of the women’s roles of reproduction and more generally their roles in the society. Unlike liberal feminists radicals argue that the views in the field of IR are male-centric and biased towards women. According to radical feminists the social sciences caanot be ‘cleaned up’ simply by enlarging the categories of inquiry to include the activities of women, because the very norms and rules of social scientific inquiry used to construct even these expanded categories inspired by masculine thinking. Distinctions between fact and value, subject and object, rationality and irrationality-all central to traditional social scientific thought are product of the male mind and as such must be transcended by feminists. This field of feminist assume that all the policies and subject matter emerge from a masculine world view which gives importance to subjects like policy making, national interest in terms of power while the radical feminists ask for a reformulation of these notions.
The Victorian American society was divided into male and female spheres of different interests, which left men’s and women’s worlds separate of each other. Smith-Rosenberg argues that this was so because gender roles were rigidly differentiated within the society, as within the family. The public sphere of law, politics and economics was men’s arena and women acted only in the private sphere of domestic life. The division of separate spheres was due to the supposed psychological differences of the sexes: men were associated “with reason, objectivity, the law; women with emotion, subjectivity, and ritual.” '5" Victorians believed these separate spheres were determined “by the immutable laws of God and nature,” which left little option for ordinary
In the article “Religions: The Basics” by Malory Nye talks about female writers, inequality and the distinction between males and females. In the article it mentioned how the term Androcentricism assumes that the male’s perspective and experiences are the most vital and key point of reference. I agree with Mary Daly that the concept of belief in a male deity leads to profound sexual inequalities. The reason I agree with Mary Daly is due to the fact there is a lot of gender differences and that women are viewed as inferior, while men are more superior. It is surprising that in western culture, they can’t go a day without woman-male distinction.
The world has an abundance of living things, and of course human beings fall into this category. People are an intelligent species, and are all born with the same human structure in order to live and exist. While people are alike in many ways, each also has its own physical characteristics. Not only are people born with different hair, eyes, and skin color, but also in different cultures, ethnicity, gender, and speaking a different language. Over the course of time migration from one region to another has occurred with the hope for advancement.
Essentially, marriage in the 1700’s was seen merely as a means of birthing heirs and finding a way to financially support yourself, so it resulted in both men and women being devalued. It is universally known that women were often treated as inept and helpless rather than sophisticated people with autonomy and capabilities. In fact, during this time, “married women were consistently compared with minor children and the insane-- both categories of people considered incapable of caring for themselves. To marry a woman was, in one sense, to ‘adopt’ her-- or at least to adopt responsibility for all the circumstances of life with which she entered the marriage” (Teachman 39). Furthermore, when women got married, they would legally cease to exist.
Since the beginning of time, both men and women grown up and evolved together throughout history. However, as times continues, their perceptions of gender and attitudes grew larger as in different time periods. For example, in the beginning of birth, the roles of women and men has been predetermined by the society that surrounds them, whereas males play a dominant role in competitions with other males for supremacy while females take a passive role, allowing males to take charge. However, in many occasions, men showed their masculinity and manipulate how the females should act in public and personal space. In particular, Fatema Mernissi’s “Size 6: The Western Women’s Harem” demonstrates how males manipulate the coexist of females in public
Patriarchy in a system simply refers to males put in a higher position than females excluding them from being the head of the household and in many different governmental and leadership positions. This way of life proceeds to spill over into other areas of life, which allow men to believe they have the authority in all positons over women. Misogyny refers to the hatred of women, and the patriarchal system can easily lead to men hating women for various reasons. When one is in a system where the male already has authority and power, it could be easy to begin to view females as worthless individuals. In Sharon Lennon’s story, “What Is Mine,” she tells a story from her past about being mistreated by the baseball coach.