2.0 Introduction 2.1 Theory 2.11 Neoclassical Theory of corporate investment The neoclassical theory of corporate investment is based on the assumption that the management seeks to maximize the present net worth of the company, the market value of the outstanding common shares. An investment project shall be undertaken if and only if it increases the value of the shares. The securities market appraises the project, this expected to the future earnings to the company and its risk. If the value of the project as appraised by investor exceeds the cost, than the company shares will appreciate to the benefit of existing shareholders. That is, the market will value the project more than the cash used to pay for it.
(Tudor and Mutiu, 2006, p.2). Another benefit of using cash flow is that this method can also be viewed as a method of measuring firm’s performance in some extent. According to Marshall (2014), there are there categories under cash flow basic: cash flows from operations, cash flow from investing and financing activities. These there approaches will explain users the overall change of cash during the year. If the cash from operations exceeds cash flows from investment, that reflect a good sign of firm’s performance.
Hill Country practices the conservative capital structure, which has excessive liquidity and lower interest rates that will bring negative impacts on the company’s financial performance measures. So, it is a good opportunity for Hill Country to implement a more aggressive capital structure. For example, the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of this company can increase the leverage ratio by either increase the debt or reduce the equity or both. At first, debt financing usually used when a firm raises money for capital expenditures by issuing debt instruments to individual or institutional investors. In return for lending the money, the firm need to pay the principal plus interest payment at some agreed time in the future.
This is known as “arms-length” trading , because it is the product of genuine negotiation in a market. This arm’s length price is usually considered to be acceptable for tax purposes. But when two related companies trade with each other, they may wish to artificially distort the price at which the trade is recorded, to minimise the overall tax bill. This might, for example, help it record as much of its profit as possible in a tax haven with low or zero taxes. Tax law starts from the assumption that the application of the arm’s length standard will reduce the interference of tax effects with bona fide business decisions taken by the corporate management.
Hence, this essay will discuss whether hedge fund has made benefit for itself or not, and explain how they can create abundant wealth and benefit. Hedge funds is a kind of unregulated, private pool of capital (Kambhu 2007). The managers of hedge funds institution could invest a generous assets and pursue high return through some investment strategies.
Competitive advantage of a firm is the edge that it has over its competitors (Altharti 2012).It is important to state that competitive advantage (CA) cannot be achieved without a business strategy or business model. It is the business strategy, which is the management game plan for creating value for stakeholders and earning a reasonable return on investment that gives a company a competitive advantage over rivals in terms of higher financial performance on revenue, return on investment etc. The author accepts that Porter’s generic strategy and value chain are important tools in understanding the competitive strategies being deployed by rivals in any industry analysis. An understanding of the generic strategies such as the broad low cost provider, broad differentiation strategy, and narrow focus strategies on cost and differentiation being deployed by competitors can provide opportunities for existing and potential competitors by trying to achieve a lower cost or better differentiation by rivals. The value chain is an internal analysis of how an organization organizes
“CM = Selling Price - Variable Costs”. It can be considered as either unit contribution margin or total contribution margin. Contribution margin is the profit available to cover fixed costs & produce net income to the owners. The contribution margin can also be viewed as a percentage or ratio. To compute the contribution margin ratio, divide CM by the Selling Price.
Fair value accounting (FVA) has pros and cons itself. It depends on how the fair value applied by the companies. Supporters of FVA argue that FVA can increase transparency for presenting financial statement to the third parties (Ian E. Scott, 2010). Increased transparency allows users to better understand financial performance and true picture of the company and gain additional insights in making decisions. According Zijl and Whittington (2006), fair values are useful for investors and increase transparency.
(1) Primary ways companies raise common equity: A company can raise common equity in following two ways: i. By retaining earnings and ii. By issuing new common stock. d. (2) Cost associated with reinvested earnings or not: The companies may either pay out the earnings in the form of dividends or else retain earnings for reinvestment in business. If part of the earnings is retained, opportunity cost is incurred, stockholders may had received those earnings as dividends and then invested that money in stocks, bonds, real estate and others.
The total value of the company is the value of its present operations and the value of the extra cash generated from sale of division. So the share price, P0, can be obtained by dividing the total value by total outstanding number of the shares. P0 = (V + Extra