The most important part of the assessment is the interpretation and the use of the information that is gleaned for its intended purpose assessment is embedded in the learning process, it is tightly interconnected with curriculum and instruction. As teachers and students work towards the achievement of curriculum outcomes, assessments plays a consent role in informing instruction, guiding the student’s next steps, and checking progress and achievement. Teachers use many different process and strategies for classroom assessment, and adapt them to suit the assessment purpose and needs of individual students. Research shows that students learn best when assessment are based on clear learning goals. It differs according to students learning
The basic concept of learning is based on this theory. The mental processes as they are being influenced by either intrinsic and/or extrinsic factors, which eventually results in learning acquisition of an individual. Knowledge systems of cognitive structures are actively constructed by learners based on pre-existing cognitive structures. The teacher facilitates learning by providing an environment that promotes discovery and assimilation/accommodation. The cognitive processes are: observing, categorizing, and forming generalizations about our environment.
Communication theory is a driving force behind instructional design. Instruction is designed so that its objectives can be properly communicated and received by the learner. Both the learner and the designer receive feedback about the instructional process. System theory System theory is an inter-disciplinary theory which consist a set of concept, construct, facts and terms which describe and explain the characteristics and phenomena affecting with any system. Thinking instructional design as a concept of system or ‘a set of interrelated and interacting parts that work together toward some common goal’ (Smith & Ragan, 2005, p. 24) Instructional designer should be aware of other system discipline.
Here students are expected to develop certain kinds of conduct and character. The effects of the instrumental culture could potentially be isolative. In this culture patterns of success and failure are produced and learners are ranked. The effects of the expressive culture includes a potential for creating consensus by unifying students. Both expressive snd instrumental cultures could be useful in a curriculum model in order to understand the classroom
But a balance may be established between these two ways of thinking by encouraging the students to seek new responses for problems, catch different potential solutions and evaluate the sufficiency of alternative solutions regardless of which type the problems they encounter. However, if the teacher insists on a single correct answer in order to gain time on teaching period as is often the case; in conclusion, the student will adopt a way of learning which seeks for a single acceptable response. On the other hand, if the teacher encourages seeking different ways of solution, the student will have the tendency to learn the ways of divergent thinking which makes contribution to more creative problem
In the contemporary perspective, formative assessment feedback is used to improve learning and performance by correcting what is wrong and to encourage pointing out things a student had not discerned. This is to say that formative assessment intended to contribute to learning by integrating a feedback cycle regarding the students’ current performance. This requires summative assessment, the judgment of a students’ mastery of content against a criteria or standard at a certain point to take place prior to feedback being able to be given. This, therefore, causes a summative assessment to be necessary to all assessments since judgment according to standards or criteria is needed to occur so feedback on how knowledge or work can be improved is required. This interdependency allows for many assessments to be both simultaneously formative and summative in nature.
Teaching methods differ in terms of approach which as observed relate more to procedures which influence inner coherence, produce specific educational effects. The traditional approach embodies two, namely: (a) the didactic method, also called the directive or autocratic style, which is based on logo-centrism and an instructor-centred approach. Its focus is the teacher, who explains the logical and practical aspects of the issue or topic; secondly, (b) the dialectic method. In this approach, students are involved in the learning process and are expected to ask questions; thirdly, (c) The heuristic or research method. This method makes students the protagonists of their learning process, since they must find, guided by the instructor, and through research and experimentation, the solutions to the problems.
In their works, both Freire and Edmundson describe what they see as learning influences within educational standards and concepts today. One makes the determination that it is communicative approaches “Education thus becomes an act of depositing, which the students are the depositories and the teacher is the
In this sense, assessment is a part of the teaching and learning process and is taken to support learning. Similarly, Bachman (2004) defined assessment as “a process of collecting information about something that we are interested in, according to procedures that are systematic and substantially grounded” (pp. 6-7). In the same way, Huhta referred to assessment as “all kinds of procedures
According to David P. Ausubel, goal of learning subject matter and improve of presentational methods of teaching is important. His theory of meaningful learning regarding how knowledge is structured, how mind work to process new information and how educators can apply these ideas about learning when they present new material to learner (Gupta, 2014). This model helps educator to arrange and transfer information as meaningfully and effectually as possibly. Advance organisers provide perceptions and ideologies to learner directly. Cognitive structure deals with any kind of knowledge of a field is in our mind, how successfully it is organised.