AIM Understand reactivity series of metals. Measure voltage generated in electrochemical cells dependence of metal type and concentration of liquids. INTRODUCTION Electrochemistry is a movement of electrons from one element to another in redox reaction. In order to produce electricity Galvanic cell is needed. Galvanic cell consists of two metal electrodes which are connected by wire and a salt bridge connecting the ionic solutions.
The solar panel voltage is given as input to the Buck-Boost converter circuit. The output of the Buck-Boost converter is used to drive DC fan, LED lamp etc. The current sensor and voltage sensor is used and their output is given to a comparator. The comparator output is given to ADC of the TMS320F2808 processor to generate PWM pulse which in turn drives the MOSFET of Buck-Boost converter. A closed loop system is used to get a constant output from the converter as 12
3.4.2 OPERATION The Flyback converter is an isolated power converter; therefore the isolation of control circuit is also much needed. The two prevailing control schemes are the voltage mode control and the current mode control (in majority of cases current mode control needs to be dominant for the stability during operation). Both require a signal related to output voltage. There are two common ways to generate this voltage. The first is to use an optocoupler on the secondary circuitry to send a signal to the controller.
Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) measures the physical and chemical properties as a function of increasing temperature or time in a controlled atmosphere. TGA analysis is used in determination of the composition of materials and thermal stability at temperatures up to 1200°C. This technique can characterize materials which exhibit weight loss or gain due to decomposition, oxidation, or dehydration. There are three types of Thermogravimetry namely 1. Static or isothermal Thermogravimetry 2.
Rectifiers: A rectifier is an electrical device that converts the Alternating Current "AC" to Direct Current “DC ". This process called rectification. Rectifier can take many different physical forms for example: solid-state diodes, vacuum tube diodes, mercury arc valves, silicon-controlled rectifiers and various other silicon-based semiconductor switches. Rectifier Circuits: Rectifier Circuits can be either single phase, three phase or six phase. Single phase and three phase are mostly common used.
The Effect of harmonics is: - (a) Increased heating effect on electrical distribution equipment and cables, (b) Excessive voltage drops, (c) Large neutral current etc. 4.5 Harmonics Performance Parameters of inverter The output of inverter should be a sinusoidal voltage. The non-sinusoidal voltage output given by practical inverter and this may be solved into harmonics component and fundamental component. Performance of an inverter is evaluated of the following performance parameter:- 4.5.1 Harmonic factor of nth Harmonics (HFn) The harmonics factor is calculate to the single harmonic contribution in the output voltage of an inverter. It is known as the ratio of the rms voltage of a particular harmonics component to the rms of fundamental component.
Typically, p-type semiconductor material has positive Peltier coefficient while n-type material has negative Peltier coefficient. This shows that the Peltier effect in fact has the reversed physics of Seebeck effect. One way to understand the phenomenon of Peltier effect is that, when electrons flow from a region of high density to a region of low density, they try to maintain electron equilibrium that existed before the current was applied, by absorbing energy at one end and emitting it at the other. A series of these thermocouples can be connected in order to enlarge the effect
Impact generates an elastic wave which travels from incident bar reaches the specimen transmitted a part of the energy in the transmission a part of the energy is transmitted bar and some energy reflected back. The Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) System is utilised for testing out different materials at high line rates in tension, compression and torsion ways. By changing the specimen holding fixture and changing the loading attachment the same instrument can be used for tension, compression and torsion tests. High temperature heating system can be drawn around the specimen for carrying out high temperature check. The Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) System should be compatible with GTRE power supply conditions of input voltage 220-230 V AC, single phase, frequency-50HzThe Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) System should be capable of conducting compressive testing at strain rates extending from 50 s-1 or a smaller amount to 10,000 s-1 or more at room temperature.
Explanation of the Circuit Microcontroller PIC16F873 The Microcontroller receives input from three external circuits: the sensors, the Light dependent resistor, and the LM35 temperature sensor. It then sends output to the Liquid Crystal Display, the light bulb and to the fans. It is the heart of the circuit that controls the actual automation processes. Light Dependent Resistor LDR is a passive device whose resistivity is a function of the incident electromagnetic radiation (light). The resistance decreases drastically when light falls on it and increases when the light is moved away from it.
A heat exchanger is a device that is used to transfer thermal energy between two or more fluids, between a solid surface and a fluid, or between solid particulates and a fluid, at different temperatures and in thermal contact. There are basically two types of heat exchangers i.e. direct transfer type heat exchanger and indirect contact type heat exchanger. The heat