Every individual wishes to be healthy and disease free. Occasionally, the human health gets negatively affected due to pathogenic, disease causing microorganisms. In such cases, one takes antibiotics to cure themselves from this condition. Another mechanism to deal with this problem is vaccination which a prevention mechanism. Let us take a look at both these methods to fight diseases.
The most common treatment for these infections, caused by Staphylococcus aureus is the antibiotics. There are many kinds of antibiotics using in the modern days, but the first kind of antibiotic being introduced for treating Staphylococcus aureus was Penicillin in 1943. This kind of antibiotic stops the formation of peptidoglycan cross-linkages that makes the bacterial cell well stronger. This eventually makes the cell wall formation and degradation become imbalanced, consequently lead to the cell to die. Other kinds of antibiotic were quick introduced for treating Staphylococcus as well.
Abstract The transformation principle suggests that bacteria use DNA as their genetic material and are able to exchange their genetic material via a process of transformation. Griffith had theorised the concept of the transformation principle using two strains of bacteria and studied their ability to recombine. Avery and MacLeod followed his studies and suggested DNA was sensitive to DNase, and that the enzyme would destroy the bacteria's ability to exchange genetic material and transform into a new strain. This was then tested in the labs at Wits by second year students where they studied the transformation of ampicillin sensitive E. coli to ampicillin resistant E. coli. The results obtained there were similar to those of Avery and MacLeod,
Unlike other structures in the cell such as the ribosome the ratio of cytoskeletal proteins is not rigidly maintained allowing it to take on many shapes and to vary them easily. The cytoskeleton also allows organelles to move around within the cell by providing tracks with its protein filaments. This is important as it ensures the correct concentration of the required components is kept at the different sites within the cells. The 3 classes of filaments that make up the cytoskeleton are polymers made up of protein sub-units. The microtubules are the largest and provide the cell with its dynamic shape.
Prevention of Oral Chlamydia The safest means of prevention of oral Chlamydia is abstinence from tongue-vaginal-stimulation. However, where a person wants to indulge in fellatio (oral-penile-stimulation), cunnilingus (oral-vaginal-stimulation), or anilingus (oral-anal-stimulation) without getting infected by oral Chlamydia, these options are available to prevent the bacterial infection: • Condoms. Condoms are cheap and easy to find in stores and are easy to use but the downside of using a condom (especially latex) is that it is oily and may cause a little irritation. • Dental dam. This is more difficult to find in stores and its cost is on the high side.
Drugs produced in labs can have dosage forms changed quickly i.e. how the drug is delivered. For example, tablet or capsule form. 6.2.1 and 6.2.2 Penicillin An antibiotic in the penicillin group of drugs helps fight bacteria in the body. It is used to treat various types of bacterial infections such as ear infections.
Aerin Nortier Grade 11.2 Biology research project Introduction Bacteria are everywhere some harmful and others not, without bacteria the world would be nothing. In this research paper I will be discussing bacteria, anti-bacterial agents, pros and cons of bacteria and my conductive experiment on the growth and the killing of bacteria. Bacteria are single cellular organisms that most commonly reproduce through means of binary fission. They were first discovered by Anton Leeuwenhoek in 1676 and are classified as Monera in the five kingdom classification system. Anti-bacterial agents kill or inhibit bacterial growth.
We should be able to safely say that we are doing the best we can to make sure that our bodies are guarded and protected with natural supplements to keep it healthy. Taking antioxidant supplements help you fight many diseases and free radicals naturally. They work positively to reduce the harmful onslaught of free radicals that constantly try to work their way into the system. Research on the subject by the medical fraternity indicates that these free radicals can cause very serious problems that are detrimental to health. By taking antioxidant supplements, you will be able to provide building blocks, with the oral enzymes that will counteract the harmful effects and stop them in their track.
After one cycle of PCR ,two copies of DNA strand are produced and after two cycles , four copies of DNA strand are produced and so on. It multiplies after each cycle and make number of copies of DNA strands from single DNA. The end result is an exponential increase in the total number of DNA fragments that include the sequences between the PCR primers, which are finally represented at a theoretical abundance of 2n. Almost 20-30 cycles can be carried out in one hour. PCR applications are helpful in diagnosis of majority of hereditary or non heritable diseases, this technique is also applied in molecular biology and microbiology to identify certain bacteria and viruses that can cause serious health problems.
Meiosis Introduction Meiosis is a special type of cell division in which the number of chromosomes in daughter cells is reduced to half, as compared to the parent cell. It takes place in diploid cells only, in animals at the time of gamete production while in plants when spores are produced .There are two meiotic divisions. The first meiotic division is the reduction division whereas the second meiotic division is just like mitosis . Meiosis I It is divided into many sub divisions: • Prophase I • Metaphase I • Anaphase I • Telophase I • Prophase I This is very prolonged phase , and it is different from the prophase of mitosis because in this chromosomes behave as homologous pairs. Each diploid cell has two chromosomes of each type, oe member from each parent , because of fusion of male and female gametes .Each chromosome has two chromatids, because chromosomes have been replicated during interphase.
The parents turn out different based on DNA combos that are chosen. 4. What is the term for the random arrangement of homologous pairs of chromosomes during the first division of meiosis? Independent Assortment 5. What role does the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) play in producing a DNA Profile?
For example, “Drugs such as colistin, which are so important for treating people, need to be withheld from use in animals — at least until absolutely necessary, he says” gives credibility to the scientist at the end of the sentence. These expressions of thought are ambiguous to the reader, which is disappointing since the scientific explanations of genetic transfer were explained in clearly. Although lacking creative writing style, the article provides effective visual aid for a teen audience to be engaged and inquiring to learn more about the issue. The diagram of a bacterial cell offers readers a comparison of bacterial chromosomes with that of plasmids. The cell does not include any other organelles to confuse or distract the student.
Dear Editor, There are many reasons why it is important to be properly vaccinated. First, it reduces or in some cases eliminates the risk of contracting certain viruses, such as the flu. Second, there is really no risk associated with vaccines. Also, if you are vaccinated, it makes you less likely to infect those around you. It is good for community health.
For now the best treatment for hoarding is either a certain antidepressant or cognitive-behavioral therapy. Treatment often helps the person make more reasonable judgements when deciding whether or not an object should be thrown away or not. It also allows them to make choices to live healthier by downsizing their mess. So until we find better solutions to hoarding, We should continue to provide special counseling care to help hoarders cope with getting rid of objects that they feel are sentimental, but are actually a health hazard or junk. The risks of hoarding are well known, thanks to television documentaries about individuals who hoard.
Meiosis goes through the same process I just went through, but instead of being done after cytokinesis the cell goes to another cycle of replication. During the first cycle of replication in meiosis, Prophase is the same but crossing over occurs along side of the nuclear membrane dissolving, chromosomes developing, and the spindle fibers forming. Crossing over is the process in which homologous chromosomes from both parents pair up and exchange DNA. Also during metaphase and anaphase homologous chromosomes are separated and pulled to opposite sides. During this second cycle of replication the cells grows through Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, Telophase II, and its final cycle of cytokinesis which is the exact same as during mitosis.