Pennies And Calorimetry Lab Report

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Introduction
The purpose of this lab was to compare galvanizing and creating brass with pennies using weight change, mass change and observations. The independent variables are the types of pennies used. The dependent variables are the characteristics, change in pennies, and mass of the pennies. The constant variable is the amount of sodium hydroxide.

Literature review
A covalent bond is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms. These electron pairs are shared pairs and bonding pairs, and the stable balance of attraction and a repulsive force between atoms, when they share electrons is called covalent bonding. Covalent bonding occurs when atoms share pairs of electrons.

Another type of bonding is called a metallic bond. A metal bond is different form covalent and ionic bonds,
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This process forms a zinc coating producing a corrosion resistant. However, A corrosion resistant is a multi-layered coating of zinc –iron alloy and zinc metal. During the galvanization process a metallurgical reaction occurs. A metallurgical reaction is a diffusion process so the coating forms perpendicular to all surfaces.

Conclusions
Galvanized and forming brassed pennies aren’t that different. They don’t completely look the same but the masses of the pennies are pretty close in numbers. As the graph shows both the brass and galvanized pennies masses are close in height. With penny one and penny two the masses are even equal.

Error Analysis
We may have made a few errors along the way. We could have had a blunder because we may not have waited long enough for the penny to stay on the scale. We could have made a human error because we could have had a little more or less sodium hydroxide in our graduated cylinder and eyeballed it wrong. Another error you could have made was an instrumental limitations because read the cylinder wrong on the side by

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