For example, allyl-isopropylacetamide (AIA) and ethinylestradiol. 2. Covalent Binding to Apoprotein: Covalent bonding of few drugs to apoprotein causes covalent modification of protein which results in loss of catalytic activity, only if essential amino acids are modified (Kamel et. al., 2013). For example, chloramphenicol, tienilic acid and cyclopropylamines inhibit CYP enzymes by generating reactive species that modify the protein.
stomach usually produces acid to help with the digestion of food and to destroy bacteria. This acid is corrosive, therefore some cells on the inside lining of the stomach and duodenum usually produce a natural mucus barrier which protects the lining of the stomach and duodenum. Generally there is always a balance between the acid amount that we make and the mucus protect barrier. Due to the alteration in this balance an ulcer may develop, allowing the acid to damage the lining of the duodenum or stomach . Infection with Helicobacter pylori: Infection b Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the cases of stomach ulcer.
Gallstones Introduction Gallstones are pieces of solid material that form in the gallbladder. These stones develop because cholesterol and pigments in bile sometimes form hard particles. Gallstones form in the gallbladder a small organ located under the liver. The gallbladder aids in the digestive process by storing bile and secreting it into the small intestine when food enters. Bile is a fluid produced by the liver and is made up of several substances, including cholesterol, bilirubin and bile salts (WebMD.
However, these two totally different target receptors can actually be used together. For example, in the case of Asthma. In the respiratory tract, albuterol will stick to the adrenergic receptors so the smooth muscle will relax and expand the airways, also known as bronchodilation. At the same time, the antagonist drugs, ipratropium, attaches to cholinergic receptors and obstruct the attachment of acetylcholine and limit the airways which called bronchoconstriction.
INTRODUCTION Periodontal diseases is a common infection which involves the periodontium. The periodontium are the tissues surrounding the tooth. Cardiovascular diseases on the other hand is a condition that involves the narrowing of blocked blood vessels that can lead to a series of conditions such as cardiac arrest, angina or stroke due to age, hypertension, diabetics, obesity, serum lipid concentration and abnormal habits. Periodontal diseases have been associated with cardiovascular diseases.
Loss of C=C bond at third and fourth position increase the potency to 3-10 overlap. Substitution at position 4,5 or 8 with alkyl groups ordinarily lessens diuretic action and position 2 can tolerate a small alkyl group such as -CH3.4,5 The mechanism of action of thiazide is not fully understood but they act by inhibition of NaCl reabsorption in the cortical portion of the thick ascending limb of loop of Henle & Distal tubule and also inhibit electroneutral Na & Cl co-transport system. they are rapidly absorbed orally and have volume of distribution equal or greater than the body weight. They are strongly bound to plasma proteins so most of them are not metabolized but excreted as they are in urine as chlorothiazide and hydrochlorothiazide, but benzthiazide, bendroflumethazole and polythiazide are extensively metabolised.1,2The onset of most thiazides occurs after 2-3 hours. they have half life time nearly 8-12 hours permitting one dose per day.4,6 Thiazide diuretics were available at the end of 1950 when they had acceptable adverse effect.
Allergic conjunctivitis Description Allergic conjunctivitis is inflammation of the conjunctiva caused due to allergy. It is mainly caused by air borne allergy contacting the eye. Specific IgE causes local mast cell degranulation and the release of chemical mediators including histamines, eosinophil, chemo- tactic factors and platelet activating factors that lead to inflammation. Allergic conjunctivitis occurs more frequently among those with allergic conditions, with the symptoms having a seasonal correlation. It is a frequent condition affecting 20% of the population annually worldwide.
The dry mouth reflex was first described by Cannon (1937). When areas of the oral mucosa become dry, mucosal receptors trigger the dry mouth reflex, which results in stimulation of saliva secretion. Dehydration of oral mucosa may also trigger thirst through stimulation of tactile receptors (Hirsch, 2015; John E. Hall & Guyton, 2006). Patients with xerostomia may wake up at night feeling the urge to drink (Bots, et al., 2004)The conjunctival epithelium consists of a non-keratinized, two to five cell layers thick, cuboidal stratified, squamous epithelium that covers the inside of the eye lids (the tarsus or palpebra), fornix and bulbus (except cornea) (Figure 5) (Harvey, et al., 2013).
They also serve as carriers for molecules of low water solubility this way isolating their hydrophobic nature, including lipid soluble hormones, bile salts, unconjugated bilirubin, free fatty acids (apoprotein), calcium, ions (transferrin), and some drugs like warfarin, phenobutazone, clofibrate & phenytoin. For this reason, it's sometimes referred as a molecular "taxi". Competition between drugs for albumin binding sites may cause drug interaction by increasing the free fraction of one of the drugs, thereby affecting
Inverse targeting is where by the drug is targeted to avoid or bypass uptake by the reticuloendothelial system. The reticulo endothelial system function is reduced by administering large amount of blank colloidal carrier systems such dextran sulphate . By injecting this colloidal carrier, it binds to the reticulo endothelial system instead and therefore saturating the binding sites leading to the drug been redirected to organs outside the reticuloendothelial
Research has found that enkephalins are scattered in GABAergic interneurons, with MORs and DORs inhibit granule cells because they are in very distinct subpopulations of GABAergic interneurons (11). On the other hand, dynorphins are in granule cells and dendrites and KOR agonists, which will consist of endogenous dynorphins, decrease long-term potentiation. KORs have also been found to regulate GABA release at the presynaptic sites of the neurons (K- opioid). GABA, being the main inhibitory
Of the Enterobacteriaceae family, there are genera that are in the normal human flora. Some species such as K. pneumoniae and E. coli are opportunistic pathogens which can capitalize on weakened host defenses and cause food poisoning (Baron, 1996). S. enterica secrete proteins that help aid in intracellular invasion and proliferation (Hensel, 2009). K. pneumoniae is a part of the normal human mouth, skin, and intestine flora, but can wreak havoc if inhaled (Ryan,
If there is a color change, then it is known that protein is present in the solution. Finally, lipids are tested. 5 mL of water are added to 5 mL of oil. 5 drops of Sudan 3 are added, and if the color changes, then lipids are present. Next, the McMush is tested.
Lysosomes digest the toxins so they can be safely eliminated by the cell. Peroxisomes contain oxidases and catalases that detoxify substances like alcohol and neutralize free radicals. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) also contains enzymes that detoxify certain drugs (such as alcohol). 3. Mrs. Fender’s jaundice is caused by the accumulation of bilirubin in her blood and tissues.
At the spinal level, Morphine inhibits transmission of nociceptive impulses and suppress nociceptive spinal reflexes. In more detail, morphine can promote the inhibitory pathways and release 5-HT and noradrenaline which can indirectly suppress the excitation of transmission neuron. Morphine can also inhibit directly the excitation of nociceptive transmission, thus the pain feeling is greatly