Karasek  stated in his Demand–Control model of job strain mentioned that workers experiencing high psychological demands. As an example a high workload and conflicting roles then low decision latitude by having no freedom in one’s job are more likely face distress. The Demand–Control model also be highlighted the positive effects of social support from supervisors and colleagues [Karasek et al., 1982]. 2.2 Conceptual Framework For the conceptual framework, it will involve two of variable which are independent variable and dependent variable. According to Sekaran and Bogie (2013), conceptual framework is a belief on how certain phenomena measured by specific variable are related to each other.
Functional theories of emotion mention that emotions motivate and drive behavior of the individual (Frijda, 1986). Snyder (2002) proposes that emotions resulting from the perception of success or failure of one’s pursuits towards personal goals will be colored by the perception one has towards the goals. Positive (negative) perceptions hence, will lead to positive (negative) emotions. Furthermore, he explains that the dispositional hope of these individuals will further aid or deter them from pursuing the goal in mind. For example, if an individual perceives that meeting a certain goal is difficult because of impediments/deterrents, the resulting emotion will be stressful, and, the capability to deal with the stress thence produced will be determined by the initial dispositional hope of the individual.
This belief or confidence determine how people think, feel and also behave (Bandura, 1997)). Self-efficacy is a crucial part of self-system. (Bandura, 1994). In the some researches made Self-Efficacy is directly related with Job Satisfaction and Work Performance in a positive way. (Erkus, 2013) and there is a negative correlation between Self-Efficacy and Intention to quit (Erkus, 2013) Bandura reports that people feeling strong level of self-efficacy can see difficult issues as tasks to be achievable, show deeper interest in the actions exhibit high level commitment to these interest recover quickly from issues even from disappointments.
and Sharma, A. (2006) published in the Journal of Services Marketing 20:5, 324-332 explores the antecedents of customers' reactions to incompatibility and to develop operational guidelines for managers. The research finds that mood, expectations, and perceived control over outcome (of customers) influence perception of incompatibility. Value system, control over process, and involvement affect perceived incompatibility to a lesser extent. For services managers, results highlight the importance of perceived control and prior expectation of incompatibility in managing incompatibility.
Immediate incentives are more motivating than delayed incentives because the people will be perceived value more after task completion. Certain incentives are more preferred over uncertain incentives by people because several people avoid the risk and prefer a reward of a certain magnitude over a reward of an uncertain magnitude. Extrinsic incentives tend to motivate performance because it related with pay for performance. Consequently, the authors employed the meta-analysis to summarize, and review previous papers and concluded the three board factors that importance toward motivation in positive and negative perspectives. The Hypotheses and Discussion Ha1: Goal setting correlate with increasing motivation for novices that immediate incentives is moderated.
According to Pajares, 2002, Individuals with high career self-efficacy can be more comfortable and productive when face hard working conditions. Individual with low career self–efficacy believe that what he/she is doing is harder than reality. Such kind of thought increases anxiety and stress, while it narrows the necessary viewpoint for a person to solve a problem ideally. Fakeye (2010) also views self-efficacy as learners’ beliefs about their own ability to accomplish a task. Klassen, Kwawchuk and Rajani (2008) as quoted in koura and Al-Hebaishi (2014) opined that career self-efficacy is a good predictor of human behaviour and actions in relation to career decision.
Severe differentiation may lead members likely to become demotivated and developing generalized reciprocity may lead to demotivation and performance may suffer. Differentiation is a necessary evil for organizational effectiveness. Personality similarity, demographic similarity and overall perceptions of similarity are related to LMX but its viewed that differentiation among members strictly based on similarity may result in unintended negative consequences for the leader. Sparrowe, Raymond T. Liden, Robert C Liden
The Effect of Motivation on Employees’ Performance Motivation is a key determinant of employees’ performance and a poorly motivated force will be costly in terms of excessive staff turnover, higher expenses, negative morale and increased use of managements time (Jobber, 1994). Tyilana (2005) suggests that three motivational factors such as achievement, recognition and work itself cause job satisfaction and employees’ performance. Employees want to earn reasonable salary and payment, and employees desire their workers to feel that is what they are getting. The previous researches, it is seen that factors that affect the employees of different organizations in a negative way are- insufficient wage and job security, limited training programs, lack of new opportunities etc. Moreover, with the pace of time several other factors have been revealed those are negatively affect employee motivation and performance.
The concept of organizational politics started getting of academicians and practitioners in the last decade. The body of literature on organizational politics is expanding but still the research remains distorted with respect to theory and research methodologies adopted. Despite a lot of empirical data conceptual vagueness still exist. Organizational politics is proved to be fact of life (Vigoda-Gadot, 2001a). Regardless of the widespread acceptance of presence of organizational politics proved by empirical research this aspect of life at workplace remained polemic.
Task conflict In contrast to performance conflicts, task conflicts entail disagreements among group members about the content and outcomes of the task being performed (de Wit, Jehn, & Greer, 2012). Yet, task conflict is believed to be the most beneficial type of organizational conflict – when compared to the other two types. It refers to the conflicts and disagreements among individuals related to a certain task, its content, direction and goal. Different opinions, viewpoints, decisions and proposed changes are some of the chief causes of task conflict. Low to medium level of ongoing task conflict is considered healthy for the organization because it stimulates creativity, healthy competition and provides the possibility of a better outcome through constant discussions and different