The computational representational theory of the mind (CRUM) is a theory devised to model the complexities of the human mind in cognitive science. Human thought processes have been simplified by thinking about abstract thought processes in terms of concrete computational procedures (Thagard, 11). CRUM theory surmises that thinking is the result of the application of operations to mental representations (Thagard, 11). Recent literature suggests our emotions are intrinsically tied to cognitive processes (Dalgleish and Power, 1999). Emotions are influential factors that affect mental representations such as concepts, analogies and imagery in cognitive science.
In the Social information processing model (Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A., 1994), it shows that people with higher social cognition level can easier to encode message and clarify goals adopted to social schemas and social knowledge. That means the social competence of a person varies directly with his or her cognition level.
This helps the kids understand the severity of the situation a lot better since they had already learned about the KKK. The theory relates to PST numbers 1a, 1b, and 1c. These professional standards all have to do with knowing the material well and making the appropriate connections to other things. The second principle in the cognitive learning theory is “effective instruction encourages learners to coordinate their various mental processes” (Fetsco and McClure, CLT #2). An example of this theory being used in Codell’s classroom is when they celebrate “Cajun Christmas”.
Case-based reasoning Case-based reasoning is a problem solving paradigm that in many respects is fundamentally different from other major AI approaches. Instead of re-lying solely on general knowledge of a problem domain, or making associations along generalized relationships between problem descriptors and conclusions, CBR is able to utilize the specific knowledge of previously experienced, concrete problem situations (cases). A new problem is solved by finding a similar past case, and reusing it in the new problem situation. A second important difference is that CBR also is an approach to incremental, sustained learning, since a new experience is retained each time a problem has been solved, making it immediately available for future problems
Thompson’s PCS analysis can be used to view obstacles on a personal, cultural and structural level. Thompson (1997) advises that practitioners need to address all of these dimensions when looking at and actively challenging the root causes of discrimination in practice. P which refers to the personal or psychological level of analysis includes feelings, thoughts, attitudes and actions. P also refers to practice which incorporates the relationship between the service user and social worker and prejudice which notes the inflexibility of the mind that inhibits a non-judgemental practice. (Thompson, 1997).
Cognitive Approach for conflict resolution Al-Tabtabai(39) and colleagues propose a conflict resolution technique using a cognitive analysis approach. This approach identifies a main source of conflict as the cognitive differences between parties. Feedback is presented that gives analysis of each individual 's judgement and comparisons with the counterpart 's judgement. This cognitive feedback provides insight to conflicting parties and gives them an opportunity to reach an acceptable resolution to the conflict. The proposed systematic methodology to conflict resolution identifies and measures the cues, judgements and determines the relationships between these variables.
Socio-cognitive models are models that assess certain aspects of the human belief and intention forming systems and are used to explain and predict behaviour as an outcome of multiple factors assessed like subjective norms and beliefs, for example, the Theory of Planned behaviour can predict an individual’s behaviour with an accuracy of 20 to 40% which is
However, Ju An & Sook Yoo, (2008) examine students critical thinking by using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory which composed of 26 items, which represent three constructs of critical thinking disposition. These constructs are Engagement, Cognitive Maturity, and Innovativeness. Suliman, (2006) also use this scale to measures the use of Critical thinking ability by means of truth seeking (T), inquisitiveness (I), open-mindedness (O), analyticity (A), systematicity (S), self-confidence (C) and maturity. Conversely Özkahraman & Yildirim, (2012) also utilized the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI) but went more in depth with the constructs as well as elaborating on T, I, O, A, S, C and maturity. In keeping with Facione, Giancarlo, Facione & Gainen, (1995) the Truthseeking scale on the CCTDI measures intellectual honesty, the courageous desire for best knowledge in any situation, the inclination to ask challenging questions and to follow the reasons and evidence wherever they lead.
Perceptual Reasoning Index. Tasks: Block design, matrix reasoning, visual puzzles, picture comprehension and figure weight. Measures: visual spatial processing, problem solving, inductive reasoning, quantitative reasoning and ability to quickly perceive visual details. 3. Working Memory Index.
The main argument that is focused on is that, these aspects of visual pollutions are shaped not only by the individual’s perspective, experience, need or values, but essential consideration should also count objective attributes of marketplaces, buildings and commercial signs and advertisements such as typography, order, complexity, and