Perfectionist Theory Of Perfectionism

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2.0. Introduction

In this section a background is offered on the variables of the present study which are under study including perfectionism, self -efficacy, anxiety, and social connectedness.

2.1. Perfectionism Recently, perfectionism has been considered a multidimensional construct consisting of positive and negative aspects. Moreover, empirical data has provided evidence to suggest that various adaptive and maladaptive indicators are strongly associated with different forms of perfectionism. Unfortunately, while a myriad of studies have examined the relationship between perfectionism and a variety of psychological and psycho-educational correlates among adults, only little is known about children and teenagers. Given
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This is attributed, partly, to the fact that they may be consistently unhappy with their partner’s capability to meet their standards. As a result, general unhappiness and distress is seen to develop in these interpersonal relationships (e.g., Alden, Ryder, &Mellings, 2002;Wiebe& McCabe, 2002). Aldea and Rice (2006) point that the difference between the standards of the two perfectionist styles is the maladaptive perfectionist strives for standards that are “excessive and uncontrollable”. There is current evidence to suggest that having excessive and unattainable standards for oneself leads to a variety of negative results, such as stress (Chang, Watkins,& Banks, 2004), lower academic achievement (Gilman & Ashby, 2003), low self-esteem (Grzegorek, Slaney, Franze,& Rice, 2004), and poor social functioning (Gilman & Ashby,…show more content…
Although researchers have supported the notion that perfectionism may yield both positive/healthy and negative/unhealthy connotations (Frost, Marten, Lahart, &Rosenblate, 1990; Rice, Ashby, & Slaney, 1998; Stumpf& Parker, 2000), a universally recognized and unified classification system and method of measurement for these subtypes remains elusive. Terms such as positive striving/negative evaluative concerns (Frost, Hemberg,Holt, Mattia, &Neubauer, 1993), neurotic/normal (Rice et al., 1996), dysfunctional/functional (Rheaume et al., 2000), negative/positive (Slaney et al., 2002;Terry-Short et al., 1995), and maladaptive/adaptive (Rice &Mirzadeh, 2000; Suddarth &Slaney, 2001) are merely some examples of the tremendous variation existing within the current research

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