Perfectionism can be understood as a personality trait characterized by an interaction between setting high standards of performance and excessive self-criticism or concerns to reaching them (Blankstein & Dunkley, 2002; Stoeber & Otto, 2006). Several authors have claimed that perfectionism could be adaptive or maladaptive depending on how individual interpret their performance (Hamachek, 1978; Suddarth & Slaney, 2001; Rice & Slaney, 2002). Thus, if a person has a severe self-criticism, possibly consider that there is a wide discrepancy between their ideal and actual performance, bringing him or her to experience psychological distress. By contrast, those subjects who have a flexible evaluation of its achievements, tend to be considered adaptive.
Utilitarianism states that an act is right or wrong if it has the best balance of pleasure over pain among the available acts. This theory was developed by Jeremy Bentham, he believed that we need to be most worried about how much pleasure and/or pain our actions cause. In addition, J.S. Mill developed a highly influential version of Utilitarianism after breaking away from Jeremy Bentham, who was his teacher. Mill’s Utilitarianism is focused around the greatest happiness principle which states that actions are right to the extent that they tend to promote happiness and wrong to the extent that they tend to promote the opposite.
These effects are particularly apparent, and compelling in regard to behaviours that affects health. Judge et al(2002) argued the concepts of locus of control, neuroticism, generalized self-efficacy (which differs from Bandura 's theory of self-efficacy) and Self-esteem may be markers of the same higher order concept and demonstrated them to be related concepts. Social cognitive theory Psychologist Albert Bandura has defined self-efficacy as one 's belief in one 's ability to succeed in specific situations or accomplish a task. One 's sense of self-efficacy plays a major role with about how an individual approaches goals, tasks, and challenges. The theory of self-efficacy lies at the center of Bandura’s social cognitive
To a far greater extent, using the off-record, the speaker can fulfill the satisfaction of the hearer’s negative face more than the negative politeness can do. The speaker can also prevent the entailed liability and responsibility of the direct action, positive politeness, and negative politeness. (Blum-Kulka, 1987, p. 131) According to Brown and Levinson, by utilizing the off-record strategies, the speaker is violating the Gricean Maxims which are realizations of the cooperative principle of any conversation. When uttering one of the following fifteen off-record strategies, violating the Maxim of Quantity, Quality, Relevance, or Manner is the
If a person?s negative body image becomes severe it can lead to BDD (Body Dysmorphic Disorder). It is a serious condition where one becomes obsessed with imaginary defects of their appearance. The side effects of BDD are depression, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts. They become depressed because they do not look the way they want to. Depression can make one physically sick.
They mistrust their partners and they view themselves as unworthy. Fearful-avoidant adults desire emotional closeness and often feel uncomfortable with emotional closeness. Liem and Boudewyn (1999) identified that people with losses or other trauma, such as sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence may often develop this type of attachment. Like dismissive-avoidant adults, fearful-avoidant adults tend to seek less intimacy, suppressing their feelings (Hazan & Shaver, 1987). Present research is closely linked to Shaver and Hazan’s (1987) attachment theory.
Based on what Suleyman, 2014 reported, perfectionism significantly correlated to self esteem. By understanding perfectionism also we can know either it can be positive or negative. In some cases, perfectionism may produce positive outcome and in some cases it may also lead to negative outcomes. This has been proved by Rice that believes not all aspect of perfectionism is negative. In this study, we may know either perfectionism among student can be positively affecting their self esteem or not.
Do people complain too much? When nothing goes right the way you plan it, you start to think that you don’t belong in this world. Then you start to complaint and pin out all the negative stuffs that had happen in your life. You complain about the negatives in life without looking at the positives in your life. Then you keep telling yourself that you’re not worth it.
She expresses her criticisms by saying: “...it does make me very sad that you can’t handle real emotions, Theodore” (Joze, 2013). Her comment reflects the social stigma of technological relationships. Because technological relationships involve interacting with others remotely, people think that the relationships do not have the same emotional capacity as relationships where partners have physical contact. They believe the emotions couples in a technological relationship are feeling are not genuine. As a result of this social stigma, this can negatively affect the ways that members in technological relationships view their relationships.