DISCUSSION: The most commonly used cells in regenerative therapy via stem cells are the mesenchymal stem cells, these cells are non hematopoietic, multipotent cells in nature that possess the ability to proliferate rapidly and can be differentiated into a range of types of cells that comprise various tissues. These cells were first discovered 48 years ago, by Dr Friedenstein and his team; they identified and demonstrated specific properties in these cells such as: their morphology is like fibroblastic cell, they posses the ability to grow on tissue-culture surfaces, and are Osteogenic dominance in nature. These cells are multipotent in nature and can be differentiated to neuroblasts, osteoblasts, cartilage, and muscle, endothelial and adipose cells. The availability and the source of Mesenchymal stem cells are commonly found in dental pulp tissue, periodontal
The phytochemical analysis of fruit rinds (GPFR) has shown phytochemicals such as pedunculol, garcinol, cambogin (Sahu et al., 1989) and (-)-hydroxyl citric acid (Jayaprakasha et al., 2003). Hexane and chloroform extracts of GPFR showed antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging activity and strong antimutagenicity hexane extract being more active than chloroform3. The chloroform and hexane extract of GPFR showed MIC on growth of Aspergillus flavus at 3000 and 4000 ppm respectively (Jayaprakasha et al., 2006). GPFR is reported to have antibacterial (Negi et al., 2008), hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and cardio protective activities (Ravi et al., 2014a, 2014b, 2016). Cisplatin is a platinum coordinated cytotoxic drug which is widely used as a
- Angiopoietin-2(Ang-2) ,Ang ( angiogenin) , epidermal-derived factor(EGF) , placental growth factor(PGF) , vascular endothelial-derived factor(VEGF) ,VEGFR and NRP-1, TGFα or β (growth-modifying factor) ,basic or acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGFand bFGF) , platelet-derived growth factor (PDGFR and PDGF) , a clone stimulating factor CSF(G-CSF),Endothelin-1,tumor necrosis factor(TNFα) ,Integrin, Eph Receptors and Ephrin Ligands, Cyclooxygenase-2 and nitric oxide synthase(Cox-2-and eNOS) , bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) , transmitted by hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1) , hepatocyte growth factor and scatter factor (HGF / SF) , Erythropoietin (EPO) , Cathepsin B ,cathepsin S, Thrombopoietin (TPO) ,monocyte chemotaxis protein(MCP-1) , Histamine, plasminogen activators , Plasminogen activator inhibitor ,AC133 Id1/Id3,VE-cadherin and CD31
2. The mass is infiltrate by Inflammatory cell , plasma cells , lymphocyte 3. Pulp polyp is covered by stratified squamous epithelium Treatment: 1. R.C.T 2. extraction. Prognosis : prognosis of pulp polyp is unfavorable , but is favorable after R.C.T Gangrenous necrosis of the pulp: Untreated pulpitis will result in complete necrosis of the pulp tissue, this is defined as necrosis of the tissue due to ischemia with super imposed bacterial tissue.
The poorly perfused and hypoxic placenta is thought to synthesise and release increased amount of vasoactive factors including soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), cytokines (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), angiotensin II (ANG II) type 1 receptor antibodies (AT-AA) and thromboxane TX. Elevation in these factors are proposed to result in endothelial dysfunction by decreases in bioavailable Nitric Oxide (NO) and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and endothelien-1(ET-1), which in turn result in changed renal function, increased total peripheral resistance (TRP), and ultimately hypertension. PIGF is a placental growth factor and VEGF is a vascular endothelial growth factor. These are
The emergence of modern chemotherapy was first established by Erhlich, who found targeted toxicity of distant microbial organisms through the use of microbe specific drugs that he called magic bullets. As a result of this concept, the design of agents to affect disease etiology with low toxicity to the host has dramatically reduced or abated the mortality of numerous diseases. The selection of systemically administered agents to prevent, suppress, or reverse periodontal attachment loss has been approached by either reducing the bacteria found in the gingival sulcus or modulating the response of the host to the bacteria found in the gingival sulcus.5 Chemotherapy It is the treatment of systemic infection and malignancy with specific drug
Pharmacological interventions like glucocorticoids preserve ambulation and other complications (Bushby et al 2009 pg 7). With glucocorticoid therapy, physiotherapy interventions must be incorporated into the rehabilitation programme for a patient to perform quality functional activities. The management of muscle extensibility and joint contractures are important. It allows “optimum movement and functional positioning, maintain ambulation, prevent deformities and maintain skin integrity” (Bushby et al 2010 pg 177). In the following sections, the focus will be on joint contractures, muscle weakness, its management and the two outcome measure to measure the functional abilities of the
Biomaterials for bone tissue engineering possess a property to heal bone defects in vivo. They are chosen by studying a number of properties including bioactivity (osteo-conductive, osteo-inductive, osseo-integration), cell and tissue compatibility, and load bearing capacity. Any biomaterial considered should possess a structure to promote cell adhesion for the osteoblast, osteoprogenitor or stem cells. There are three major criteria to be noted when a biomaterial is taken for study other than those mentioned previously: (i) Composition - polymer, metals, ceramics etc; (ii) Stability -resorbable, non-resorbable; (iii) Purpose - load bearing, filling material (Schlögl and Winfried,
A consolidation of its traditional usage as well as its chemical and pharmacological profiles will thus guide efforts aimed at maximizing this potential. A stronger focus on clinical studies and phytochemical definition will be essential for future research efforts. Apart from its common dermatological uses it can also be an alternative for medicinal purposes. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors are greatly acknowledged. Sincere thanks to Missis Jiju V (Department of Pharmacognosy, Nazreth College of Pharmacy, Othera) and Dr. Elessy Abraham (Principal, Nazreth College of Pharmacy, othera) for valuable support throughout the study.
ABSTRACT This article explains recent advances in the synthesis and characterization of biomaterials. Biomaterial is any matter, surface, or construct that interacts with living systems which is used to do expected activity of the replaced material towards human body. Biomaterials are commonly used to replace any of the traumatized or degenerated tissues or organs. All materials cannot be replaced by traumatized organ of the body, the material should poses good characteristics towards bio compatibility and host response. Bio compatibility and host response both refers to response of host organism towards the replaced materials.