Influenza presents as a rapid onset of malaise, chills fever, sore throat, nonproductive cough. Common cold symptoms are a runny nose and eyes, nasal stuffiness. A less aggressive onset with the initial appearance of nasal sinus irritation and excessive nasal secretions. Flu contrasts from a common cold in that it usually has a sudden, acute onset of fever, fatigue, and aching pains in the body.It may also cause viral pneumonia. Similarly to the common cold, a mild case of influenza can be complicated by secondary
The TB treatments such as drugs stop the spread of TB germs, but the treatments have dangerous side effects, which are permanent. For example, the patient loses the normal color of the skin, so the patents have a jaundice appearance. Moreover, a loss of appetite is another serious effect of the
UpToDate: Prior to diagnosis it is important to define the severity of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). According to UpToDate, mild disease is often asymptomatic or very mild, moderate disease includes dyspnea on exertion, and dry cough, and decreased pulmonary function tests, and severe disease is characterized by dyspnea on mild exertion and the need for supplemental oxygen. Treatments include supportive care which involves supplemental oxygen when needed, vaccinations against influenza and pneumonia as these are not tolerated well in IPF patients, patient education, and pulmonary rehabilitation. There are some medications that are available that are being tested in clinical trials or already available to patients. These include Nintedanib and Pirfenidone.
COPD is referred to both chronic bronchitis and emphysema, the symptoms of COPD are persistent coughing with mucus, shortness in breath, and tightness in the chest, the treatment for COPD is medication and a change in lifestyle, oxygen therapy . Next emphysema is caused by cigarette smoking and other toxins such as industrial chemicals, in developing countries, the smoke that's caused by cooking or heating can cause emphysema. Even though smoking is a huge contributor to emphysema there are minor risk factors such as, a low body weight, child respiratory disorders, an exposure to cigarette smoke, air pollution/smog, and dust(mineral dust, cotton dust), also genetics can a lead cause to emphysema, for instance a close relative of someone with emphysema can or could get the disease themselves. There are three different morphological types of emphysema, centriactinare, panacinar, and paraseptal. Centriacinar emphysema is a form that is connected with long term cigarette smoking and it involves the upper half of a person's lungs, it beings at the respiratory bronchioles and spreads
They are evidence of asbestos exposure. 2. Pleural disease - a slightly different form, with more severe thickening which can impair breathing. 3. Asbestosis - diffuse lung disease that is usually slowly progressive and can be fatal in the end-stage, causing respiratory failure.
Characteristics of endochondral ossification include, the presence of a hyaline cartilage model of the bone and the presence of cartilage, along with the bone during the ossification process. Endochondral ossification occurs in the fetus, when the skeleton starts to
So by suprahyoid muscle contraction comes to rise of hyoid bone, larynx and pharynx if the jaw is fixed, and if the muscle is fixed by infrahyoid comes to lowering of hyoid bone and retreat back the lower jaw, which allows you to open your mouth. The optimum position of the cranio-cervical structures is a prerequisite for performing various vital functions such as breathing or swallowing. Dysfunction of any structure in cranio-cervical region can lead to disorders, which can manifest itself in other structures of the cranio-cervical region. To what extent will a disorder manifested depends on a lot on the individual ability of individuals to adapt to the disturbance occurred
It’s contributes to the multiple regions of the skull: anterior cranial fossa, middle cranial fossa, pterygopalatine fossa, infratemporal roof, , orbit, lateral wall of the cranial vault and roof and lateral wall of the nasal cavity, It’s articulates with the following bones: The ethmoid bone, the frontal bone, the zygomatic bones, the parietal bones, the temporal bones, the palatine bones, occipital bone and the vomer (Liebgott, 2011). It is consist from four main part : and three paired processes—greater wings, lesser wings and pterygoid processes (Tandon, 2009) 3.1.2 body of sphenoid bone• Its reprecent the central part and contains two sphenoidal air sinuses, It has multiple surfaces: Superior surface—bears a sulcus chiasmaticus and Dorsum sellae with two posterior clinoid processes lie posteriorly Inferior surface—has the rostrum, Two lateral surfaces—Each has a carotid sulcus for internal corotid artery. Anterior surface—presents sphenoidal crest in midline. On either side are openings of sphenoidal air sinuses and sphenoidal concha. Posterior surface fuses with basilar part of occipital bone by 25th year .
On the other hand, the activation of the opioid receptors widely represented in the myenteric plexus and the intestines may affect the gastro-intestinal tract physiological functions. In particular, morphine delays the transit time from the stomach to the intestine and reduces intestinal and pancreatic secretions. Due to these actions morphine present frequent and relevant gastro-intestinal side effects including constipation, ileus, and occasionally abdominal pain. Moreover, nausea and vomiting are also common side effects of morphine. The vomit mechanism is not well and completely understood; however, the interaction with μ receptors in the chemoreceptor trigger zone and the vomiting center in
Bone tissue structure Bone is hierarchically organized. Zooming in the bone structure (Fig. 4a), we find the osteons or Haversian systems, which are the basic unit of structure of compact bone. Osteons consist of concentrically arranged layers, or lamellae, of compact bone tissue, that surround a central canal, the Haversian canal, where bone’s blood supplies and nerves can be found (Fig. 4b).