There are many physical effects of TB such as heart disorders. In addition, tuberculosis affects the tissues that surround the heart. Also, joint damage is another serious effect of tuberculosis, and the patients with this effect have many problems in the hips and knees. Moreover, TB has a secondary effect that is related to the treatments. The TB treatments such as drugs stop the spread of TB germs, but the treatments have dangerous side effects, which are permanent.
Red Flag Assessment in the Thoracic Spine Category one findings: Due to the viscerosomatic referred pain, many visceral conditions can produce secondary musculoskeletal pain in thoracic region. Therefore, patients could experience symptoms in the musculoskeletal structures innervated by the same nerve levels at which the visceral afferents converge. The thoracic spine has the highest incidence in the spine for primary neoplasm and metastatic tumours. Category two findings: The complications of several metabolic disorders manifest themselves in the thoracic spine. Computerized tomographic (CT) scanning is ideal for defining bony changes associated with these disorders, while magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most appropriate for identifying soft tissue lesions.
Rotator cuff injuries are pretty popular and happen to a lot of people. Basically, the two most common types of injury for the rotator cuffs are tears and impingements. Impingements on the shoulder occurs when the soft tissues of your rotator cuff become inflamed and swollen. When this happens, there will be an expansion in size and this will make movement of the shoulders a little bit difficult. This will cause pinching between the shoulder blade and the arm bone when you try to move your shoulders.
Endochondral ossification and long bone growth in humans Endochondral ossification is the process in which the embryonic cartilaginous model of most bones, which supplies the longitudinal growth and is slowly replaced by bone. Endochondral ossification allows a growing bone to bare weight during its development. The endochondral process of ossification provides a framework for a more rigid skeletal material. Long bones of the limbs and ribs develop by endochondral ossification. Characteristics of endochondral ossification include, the presence of a hyaline cartilage model of the bone and the presence of cartilage, along with the bone during the ossification process.
Unfortunately, the traditional treatments often accompanied with some disadvantages such as donor site morbidity, risk of disease transmission, limited long-term function recovery, high failure rates and risk of injury recurrence. Therefore, tissue engineering provides an alternative in the treatment for repair or replacement of damaged tendon. The use of adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with scaffolds and bioactive molecules are the most typically used candidates for the regeneration of
Introduction The knee joint is most commonly involved in many sports injuries and as modern sport is being more and more competitive, more complex knee injury patterns are being recognized. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a very commonly involved ligament in these injuries.8 The knee joint is a large compound type of synovial joint. Due to the lack of bony support, stability of the joint is highly dependent on its supporting ligamentous structures, and therefore injuries of ligaments and menisci are extremely common especially in active individuals like athletes, labours and soldiers. Anterior cruciate ligament is an intra-articular, extra synovial structure present in the central complex of knee joint. It functions in
This ligament is strong, flexible and supple or compressible, and keeps the bones from moving against each other at the joint. The telephones of this ligament, called chondrocytes, are thought to be the longest living cells of the body. Including the bones and ligament is strong, strong case lined with synovium, a slight layer that oils up the joint reach with
It is a fibrous sac that envelops the cavity of the synovial joint to keep the synovial fluid inside the capsule. For the hip joint specifically, the fibrous layer of the joint capsule attaches proximally on the hip bone to the bony rim of the acetabulum and the transverse acetabular ligament. Distally, it is attached to the femoral neck on the anterior side at the intertrochanteric line and the bottom of the grater trochanter. On the posterior side the joint capsule is arched and crosses the neck proximally to the intertrochanteric crest, but it is not attached. The joint capsule encases about two thirds of the neck and femur
4b). Sequential concentric lamellae have alternate fiber orientations with each other, spiralling around the central canal . These fundamental units are aligned on the direction in which force is applied to bone, and the concentric layers give bone tissue an extra resistance to breaking, as a crack cannot be easily spread from lamellae to lamellae. Figure 4: a) Hierarchical structure of bone ranging from the macroscale skeleton to nanoscale collage and HA. Nair, A.K., et al., Molecular mechanics of mineralized collagen fibrils in bone.
Complete rectal prolapse is a life-style altering disability that commonly affects older people. Rectal prolapse occurs when a mucosal or full-thickness layer of rectal tissue slides through the anal orifice. Full-thickness prolapse of the rectum causes significant discomfort because of the sensation of the prolapse itself, the mucus that it secretes, and because it tends to stretch the anal sphincters and cause incontinence. Surgical management is aimed at restoring physiology by correcting the prolapse and improving continence and constipation, whereas in patients with concurrent genital and rectal prolapse, an interdisciplinary surgical approach is required. Rectal prolapse frequently coexists with other pelvic floor disorders,