A neural tube defect is a birth defect called Spina Bifida. If the babies’ spinal cord doesn’t form properly it causes Spina Bifida. There are three types of Spina Bifida one is mild the other is severe and the other is more severe. Mild Form Mild form of Spina Bifida is the most common form. It doesn’t usually cause problems nor need nursing.
One of the most leading causes of epilepsy is head trauma (most likely from an accident) which is known as “Post Traumatic Epilepsy.” Another cause is brain conditions; when someone has had a stroke or brain tumor in the past they have a higher chance of developing epilepsy. Also, infectious diseases (such as meningitis and AIDS) can cause epilepsy. Lastly, prenatal injuries: mother acquires an infection or oxygen deficiency to the baby and developmental disorders: autism and neurofibromatosis (Epilepsy, 2017). To figure out if someone actually has epilepsy, they will go through tests to be
Cerebral Palsy is caused by brain injuries or brain malformation that occurs before during or after birth that affects the brain's development. There are many ways to prevent Cerebral Palsy according to which category it falls into. There are three categories, congenital, acquired and genetic predisposition. Congenital cases are the result of brain damage before the child is born and often happens because of birth complications. It can be acquired in multiple ways such as having a stroke or being in a car accident and it may also be the effect of shaken-baby-syndrome, it can also happen because of an infection or condition that slows down the blood flow to the brain.
Of course, the condition will most likely involve a heart problem, which is discovered at birth, along with a webbed neck, chest deformities, many birth marks, also known as café-au-lait spots, and a short stature. The features of this syndrome are not fully known, considering the fact that there are numerous characteristics and no two infected individuals have the same exact features. Like in most other disease cases, there are lists of more minor symptoms that can occur in an individual. In infants and newborns, feeding problems are present, due to a poor sucking reflex. Behavioral problems and developmental delays can occur, which causes the individual to achieve milestones slower, such as sitting and walking.
Partial Seizures is a condition that causes repeated seizures. Generalized Seizures takes place on both sides of the brain. Anything that affects the body also may disturb the brain and lead to a seizure. For example, fever, brain defect present at birth, brain infection, stroke,
Treacher Collins syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects the development of craniofacial. It results abnormalities in face and head due to hypoplasia of facial structures such as the lower jaw (mandible), cheekbones and abnormal small chin micrognathia. In addition, some patients with this syndrome are also born with an abnormal opening in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate), but in severe cases, hypoplasia of the facial bones may restrict the infant’s airway of breathing causing life-threatening respiratory
Spontaneous rupture of splenic artery aneurysms that are asymptomatic and are less than 2 cm in diameter is rare, especially in patients with no risk factors. A follow-up period of one year is recommended, but it may be extended if other medical risks are present. For patients who have aneurysms that are at least 2 cm in diameter, endovascular therapy is recommended. Management of large aneurysms may include coil embolization.
CYSTIC FIBROSIS INTRODUCTION Cystic fibrosis, also known as mucoviscodosis, muco meaning the mucus that builds up in the airways and blocks up the passageways. It is an autosomal recessive disorder and it can be life threatening if tests are not done at birth, especially the screening tests on new-born babies ‘’’screening tests” which are laboratory tests that help to identify infants with high risk of getting the disease or being aware of the symptoms. It is a hereditary disease that is passed on to the children by genes. Usually the parents of the child are the carriers, they both have a recessive allele for this disease and when they mate 25% chances of the first filial generation will have this disease.
Spina bifida is a neural tube defect - a type of birth defect of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. It happens if the spinal column of the fetus doesn 't close completely during the first month of pregnancy. This can damage the nerves and spinal cord. Screening tests during pregnancy can check for spina bifida. Sometimes it is discovered only after the baby is born.
Primary head injury is present at the time of the trauma and is seen as a transient or an irreversible damage to the brain but secondary brain injury is usually as a result of accompanying peri-lesional oedema or raised intracranial pressure or parenchymal ischemia affecting varying parts of the brain. These secondary changes can cause tonsillar herniation especially in cases with raised intracranial pressure and may eventually culminate in the death of the patient. [14-15] The current trend of evaluation of patients with head injury includes Computed tomography (CT), Magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI) and Nuclear medicine. However, cranial CT has emerged the mainstay in the diagnostic work-up of patients with head injury, particularly in the initial assessment of the head injured due to its availability, short image acquisition time and its accuracy in the detection of skull fractures and intracranial haemorrhage.
Head injuries and concussions are what scientist believe have caused these brain diseases in young athletes. These injuries are sustained by serious blows to the head to the point when the brain slams back and forth against the inner head. Traumatic brain injuries are long term effects that are sustained through various blows to the head which scar the brain itself. Unlike TBIs, concussions can be healed in due time as long as the person who has experienced the concussions has followed the necessary procedures and has received enough rest to further help the brain heal. Some head injuries although can lead to these brain diseases.