The released B12 subsequently binds HC . this binding is thought to shield the vitamin from chemical modification or hydrolysis by the acidic environment in the stomach. (Del Corral and Carmel 1990; Kittang and Schjonsby 1987) gastric dysfunction and diminished acid secretion (gastric atrophy, gastric surgery or treatment with acid suppressing drugs) may lead to B12 malabsorption. Different foods have different vitamin B12 bioavailability (the amount of vitamin B12 available for absorption) mainly depend on the ability of the stomach environment to liberate the vitamin from them. As example vib12 from the fish meat is less bioavailability than the B12 from the milk, mainly because of the limited ability for stomach conditions to liberate the bound B12 from its
In the findings they do not show a diagnosis. The results are indication of an underlying disease or condition. The most common cause of anemia iron deficiency and vitamin B-12 and folate deficiency. These vitamins require the body to produce plenty healthy red blood cells and iron to produce hemoglobin. Other conditions that cause anemia are HIV/AIDS, cancer, kidney disease, and sickle cell anemia.
| HowStuffWorks," n.d.) The mucous doesn’t get digested as it secrets the hydrochloric acid because the pH within the parietal cells remain neutral. Hydrochloric acid in the lumen doesn’t digest the mucous because cells in the mucous secrete large quantities of protective mucus that line the mucosal surface. Basic electrolytes, such as HCO3-, trapped inside the layer of mucus neutralize any hydrochloric acid that enters the mucus. This mucus layer also protects the mucosa from digestive enzymes in the lumen. ("Why don 't our digestive acids corrode our stomach linings?
The reason for this toxicity isn't because of the benzene ring found in acetaminophen, which can also cause liver damage, but rather a metabolite known as N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI). NAQPI reduces the amount of glutathione (an antioxidant that prevents damage to cells) within the liver and also damages the cells within the
It is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease (metabolism disorder passed down through families) caused by a deficiency in one of the enzymes needed to break down the glycosaminoglycan heparan sulfate which is found in the extra-cellular matrix and on cell surface glycoproteins. It makes the body unable to properly break down the heparin sulfate sugar chain. The incompletely broken down heparan sulfate remains stored inside cells in the body and begins to build up, causing progressive damage. There are four types of sanflippo syndrome based on the defective gene that encode for the enzyme. Sanfilippo type A: A person does not have a normal working form of the enzyme called heparan N-sulfatase, Sanfilippo type B: Occurs when a person
In particular, the formulation of rosuvastatin, molecule which is generally lipophilic, poses real problems owing mainly to their low solubility in aqueous liquid pharmaceutical excipients, to their propensity to precipitate or recrystallize in aqueous solution and to their low solubility in the fluids of the gastrointestinal tract from which they must be absorbed. The bioavailability of an active ingredient also depends on its concentration in the gastrointestinal fluid, said concentration itself being dependent on the release of the active ingredient. In particular, the more lipophilic an active ingredient is, the less tendency it has to migrate in gastrointestinal fluids. The above said problem can be overcome by nanoparticle drug delivery
The excess calcium entering the cell causes ionic imbalance leading to (1) mitochondrial fragmentation (2) histone dephosphorylating (3) transcription complications and ion desumoylation. The bacteria then release LNTA and other virulence factors to rapture the membranes of the cell and it to repress gene expressions. it modifies itself and becomes resistant to immune cell response factors such as phagocytes .it also secretes ACT-A that will enhance the rapid growth of actin
In the small intestine, apoptotic absorptive enterocytes are continuously sloughed off into the lumen completely renewing the epithelium every 5-7 days. The intestinal epithelium has three major functions: • the digestion and absorption of nutrients; • the adsorption and secretion of water and electrolytes to maintain the viscosity of the luminal content and the flush out noxious components; • serving as a barrier against pathogens. The single layer of columnar epithelial cells acts as a mechanical barrier, and, in addition, throughout the whole digestive tract, the epithelium is covered with a highly viscous mucus layer that both trap antimicrobial peptides and neutralizing secretory IgA antibodies. Impaired intestinal barrier function or an increased intestinal permeability may promote the translocation of bacteria and the entering of allergenic compounds from the gut into the body (Wijtten et al.
At the introduction to the duodenum, alpha amylase is secreted by the pancreas and further breaks down the carbohydrates into primary simple sugars. Then they are transported and absorbed by the small intestine via the villi on the epithelial lining of the lumen of the small intestine. The epithelium absorbs these simple saccharides (such as dextrin and maltose). These sugars, in their simplest forms (as glucose, fructose, or galactose), will enter the capillaries where they enter the blood stream via different transporters such as the GLUT transporter (a facilitative sugar transporter)(7). Fructose and galactose will enter the liver via the hepatic portal system where they are broken down to glucose.
Anemia is mainly causes by iron deficiency. If not treated it leads on to deficiencies of thyroid hormones, folate, vitamin B12 and other important hormones in the body. Other causes may include chronic diseases like megaloblastic anemia. On the other hand when the values are above normal, it maybe be as a consequence of dehydration in which the value should be raised. • Neutropenia White blood cells include neutrophils, neutrophils function and immune system protector that combat against diseases and infections.