ANIMAL SELECTION Male albino rats were purchased from authorized supplier of Jabalpur, M.P. weighing 150-200 g. The animals were allowed free access to commercial rat pallet diet (Lipton India ltd. Mumbai ,India) and water add Libitum . Rats were housed in a group of six in clean cages at 250C and 12 hours photoperiod with relative air humidity of 30 to 60% . All the experimental procedures were carried out accordance with committee for the purpose of control and supervision of experiments on animal guide lines . PREPARATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF DOSES
After two weeks of treatment, rats were terminated using sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, IP) for liver collection. Liver was isolated, weighed, aliguoted in few tubes and snap frozen in liquid nitrogen. A 10 % (w/v) liver homogenate was made in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (pH 7.4) for the assay of hepatic TBARs, NADPH, NrF2, and HO-1. Other frozen liver samples were homogenized in RIPA buffer for western blotting (n=4/group). A piece of liver was fixed in 10% formalin for histochemical evaluations of
Further experiments involving the analysis of serum glucose, creatinine concentration, albumin-creatinine ratio, and expression of inflammatory and renal injury gene markers were performed. The Sprague Dawley rats in the 100 mg/kg group gained 5% less weight than the other treatment groups and converted roughly 3% more of their food intake into body mass. The kidney weight per body weight of the 100 mg/kg treatment group was 30.1% greater than the control group. Creatinine concentration of the 100 mg/kg group was 46.2% greater than the control group. These results suggest that 2AA may induce the early diabetic renal injuries of hyperfiltration and microalbuminuria, however, further studies utilizing urine analysis, glomerular filtration assessments, greater 2AA concentrations, different delivery methods, longer trials, and ELISA should be conducted to further assess the effect of 2AA on diabetic
(6 marks) The antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is synthesized by neurons located in the hypothalamus and are stored in and secreted by the posterior pituitary gland (Silverthorn et al., 2013). The high osmolarity of a dehydrated person is the primary stimulus for the secretion of ADH (Saladin, 2004). This hormone acts on the collecting duct of the nephron (Silverthorn et al., 2013). ADH increases and water reabsorption and decreases osmolarity of renal filtrate (reduces urine output) by two mechanisms.
The specimen that were utilized were Sprague Dawley adult male rats (10 rats). They were euthanized by 0.5ml of sodium pentobarbital, an intravascular injection, and then weighed. Afterwards, these animals were assigned randomly to a horizontal or vertical position (5 rats per group). The rats in the horizontal group were placed on a supine, head-up, position while the vertical group were placed on a prone, head-down, position. The room temperature was kept at 22°C.
EXENATIDE Pharmacology Exenatide is a synthetic form of naturally occurring peptide Exendin-4 in Gila monster 16. It has 50% of sequence homology with native GLP-1 with the substitution of amino acid Arg with Gly at 2nd position, which provides resistance against DPP-4 and a half life of ~2-4hr. It is administered 60min before breakfast and dinner, with a predominant effect of reduction in PPG (Postprandial glucose) 17. Exenatide is rapidly absorbed following subcutaneous administration and eliminated through kidneys after proteolytic degradation by dipeptidyl peptidase IV.18 Clinical Pharmacology
1- Experimenting on animals was documented in Greek physician- scientist like Aristotle and Erasistratus. 2- Rats and mice are the most used animals for experiments. 3- Any medicine or any cosmetics are first tested on animals.
(2012) indicated that glyphosate is associated with breast cancer based on the results of their study where the female rats that continuously consumed food containing glyphosate developed large mammary tumors. Yong et al. (2010) explained that the disruption of Cytochrome P450 1A2 and the availability of sulfate due to the presence of glyphosate can result to an increase in breast density, high risk to breast cancer, and slow metabolism of estrogen and testosterone. Samsel and Seneff (2013) further added that other diseases associated with glyphosate exposure include obesity and inflammatory bowel
Leukotrienes (LT) are fatty acid-derived mediators containing a conjugated triene structure. They are formed when arachidonic acid (Chapter 26) is liberated from the cell membrane of cells, as a result of cell activation by allergic or other noxious stimuli. 5-Lipoxygenase is the enzyme required for the synthesis of LTA4, which is an unstable epoxide precursor of the two subgroups of biologically important leukotrienes. LTB4 is a dihydroxy 20-carbon-atom fatty acid which is a potent pro-inflammatory chemo-attractant. The other group is the cysteinyl leukotrienes (LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4).
Gobe and team used AuI or AuIII complexes for the synthesis of pentacyclic indolo[2,3-a]quinolizidines from N-allyl tryptamines and ortho-alkynylarylaldehydes(36). They performed this reaction following the novel work done by Adithi Danda et al for the development of a catalytic two-step reaction sequence to access a range of complex heterocyclic frameworks based on biorelevant indole/oxindole scaffolds using Au(1) complex as a catalyst(37). They initiated their study by establishing the suitable catalytic system for the Pictet–Spengler gold-catalyzed cyclization onepot process (Scheme 16). To this aim, N-allyl tryptamine 70 and aldehyde 71 were reacted in the presence of catalytic amounts of diphenyl phosphate (DPP, 5 mol%), to ensure catalysis of the Pictet–Spengler reaction and various catalyst 72 in dichloroethane at
In 2005, researchers at the Ramazzini Foundation in Bologna, Italy conducted such a study. The study found that rats exposed to aspartame starting at 8 weeks of age, and continuing throughout their lives, developed leukemias, lymphomas, and kidney tumors. In 2007, the same researchers published a follow-up study that exposed rats to aspartame beginning in the womb and continuing throughout their lives. It found that aspartame caused lymphomas, in addition to mammary (breast) cancers. In 2010, the group exposed test mice to aspartame while they were still in the womb again, and made the startling discovery that the mice developed liver cancers and lung cancers
A carcinoma was developed in a female outbred nude mouse skin site A cutaneous lesion grew at the foreleg of one infected animal at 9.5 months post-infection (Fig. 2A). Histological analysis showed that this lesion had progressed to malignancy (Fig. 2B). The lesion was MmuPV1 positive (Fig. 2
The probes were either placed in the shell of the NAc or in the core of the NAc. Twenty-four hours after the probe was implanted the experiment was performed on free moving rats. A solution that was prepare with 147 Ringer’s, 4 KCl and 2.2 CaCl, was administered into the probe at a constant rate. Samples from the rates were collected and divided. One halve was tested using electrochemical for dopamine content while the other was tested with fluorescence for glutamate content.
Benzoyl starts as Bromobenzene and made into Benzoic acid, Carboxylic acid, Acid chloride and then Benzoyl Peroxide. Brenda Her, Alexandra Jones, and James W. Wollack (21/07/2014). Effects of Benzoyl Peroxide on the body: • Irritation • Redness • Burning • Adverse