NEC SX-3, Fujitsu Numerical Wind Tunnel and Hitachi SR2201 uses similar architectures to the Cray and was able to become the fastest supercomputers in the world then. The ASCI Red, created in 1996 after a failed project by Intel was the first ever supercomputer CPU to be made off the shelf. It has also reached a peak of 3.1flops and was able to be crowned the fastest supercomputer for 4 years. Years after the ASCI was overtook by the NEC Earth Simulator created by the Japanese in 2002 peaking at 35 teraflops and in 2004, IBM first released a series of supercomputers known as Blue Gene/L which swept the competition until 2008. With its capabilities of 70 teraflops, the Blue Gene/L has 16,000 compute nodes with 2 CPUs each.
According to the Guardian new agency Apple was named number one in the annual Brandz global brand power list, with a value of $247 billion (Sweney, 28 May 2015). Moreover, now the inventor of Windows operating system, Bill Gets is the richest man in the world (Forbes, 2015). This statistics shows how much these products are used by the people. It’s important for us which kind of operating system we use according to our geographical location, if you are in Afghanistan it’s better to use PCs, because you don’t have apple support here, moreover you can’t find many software for the Macs. For me I prefer to
All the advanced processors are microprocessors meaning that multiprocessors could be contained on a single chip. So, the chip forms the basic building block of microprocessors in modern digital computers. Advanced Processors: According to Moore’s law, “Integrated Circuit (IC) resources double approximately every 2 years”. And also the power limit has forced a dramatic change in the design of microprocessors. Rather than continuing to decrease the response time of a single program running on a single processor, microprocessors with multiple processors per chip have started to emerge as advanced processors where the benefit is often more on throughput than on response time.
The first single-transistor DRAM cell (which could hold a single bit of data) was developed in 1966 by Dr. Robert H. Dennard at IBM. In 1970, the newly formed Intel Corporation released the world's first commercially available DRAM chip, the 1103, which had a capacity of about a thousand bits. This uses very small transistors, making it possible to store a lot more information on a very small area. However, this increase in memory density came at the cost of volatility as every transistor needs constant power to function. This best-selling product was available at a much lower cost and smaller size when compared with core memories and immediately started replacing them.
Dell has revolutionized the direct -sales model, the resale channels and are still responsible for a very significant percentage of the overall market. Most customers look to traditional retailers when shopping for Personal Computers. OEMs usually take advantage of direct and indirect sale channels by selling straight to end-users through some retailers. Some OEM's have introduced their owner retail stores, like Apple and which is incredibly successful through there vertically integrated distribution channels. currently, most PC's have an Intel Processor and run a version of Microsoft's Windows operating system.
Compared to Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) and Static Dynamic Random Memory (SDRAM), NVRAM has been in the rise these few years. There are many types of new NVRAM such as Double Data Rate 4 Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (DDR4 SDRAM), Nano Random Access Memory (NRAM), Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM/ReRAM), and many more. Among the many types of RAM, the DDR SDRAM had been quite hype. There are few types of DDR SDRAM used by computer manufacturers’, the DDR4 SDRAM is the latest advancement of this type of RAM. Performance wise, DDR4 surpasses its predecessor, DDR2 and DDR3 because of its ability to achieve higher speed and efficiency thanks to increased transfer rates and decreased voltage.
A report says that the microprocessor was gradualness into our life, in three decades. A person could hold more than a hundred microprocessors such as vehicles, appliances, entertainment systems, cameras, wireless devices, personal digital assistants, and toys are all composed with lots of microprocessors. Hence one can see that the microprocessors develop fast. The Intel is the biggest company of produce microprocessors, which is a good condition for the Intel growth. Today, microprocessors are part of the most vital business in people’s life and people do not know what they can do without this
Computers started as simple calculating devices and with the passage of time improvements were made and now we see computers are being used in every field of life. In the beginning, computers were built for only specific purposes, were slow and large in size. The first computer ENIAC, mechanical by construction, required about the size of the room to fit-in. This led the computer scientists to focus on the size of the computer. Up till 20th century, the scientists were dabbling in the design and efficiency of computers and as a result, computers became smaller by size, faster by speed and cost-effective as well.
A CPU has billions of transistors, a transistor is a device that regulates current or voltage flow and acts as a switch or gate for electronic signals. These are the foundation of everything the CPU does. “Through the work of thousands of intelligent scientists and engineers, this network of microscopic electronics gives rise to the operating system and web browser you are using to view this post. The power of a CPU is roughly dependant on the number of
The CPU was the size of a small refrigerator and was designed to find under the desk with the mouse and keyboard on the desk. The Alto employed a graphical user interface (GUI) which became standard approximately ten years Apple’s Steve Jobs on a tour of Xerox’s Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) recognized the how useful the GUI was and used it in the design of Apple’s Lisa computer which was in its developmental stage. In fact, the Alto personal computer was deemed to be better than any computers sold before 1984 (Smith and Alexander 14). Scientists at PARC used a system of hardware and software including a monitor that was suitable for graphics, the first hand-held mouse, the Ethernet, a programming language with an orientation towards object and a laser printer to form a local area network (LAN), (Smith and Alexander 15). These were all first for Xerox.