Assessments: peer and self-assessment are crucial in providing opportunity to metacognitive thinking about education, in addition to assess own progression for meaningful productive feedback. 5. Established learning: teacher and student roles in the learning process should be established. Teachers need to create an environment where student can establish trust and mutual respect, as well as experience harmless constructive feedback. As defined by Bell & Cowie (2001), there are nine characteristics of formative assessment: responsiveness; source of evidence; tacit process; use of professional knowledge and experience; integral measures between teaching and learning; assessments by teacher and student; purpose; appropriateness of process; and predicaments.
Pedagogy is important because it demonstrate how the teaching and learning occurs. Students must build up their own understandings through teachers’ and their own considered learning experiences. Teacher’s subject matter knowledge and pedagogical knowledge are vital to good teaching and student understanding (Buchmann, 1982, 1983; Tobin & Garnett, 1988). In Shulman's theoretical framework, teachers need to master two types of knowledge: content and knowledge of the curricular development. Teacher must integrate teaching strategies that will help students to assimilate knowledge such as supportive classroom environment, recognition of difference and connectedness to the wider world.
Differentiation, with respect to instruction, means tailoring it to meet individual needs of the students. Teachers can differentiate content, process, products, or the learning environment, the use of ongoing assessment and flexible grouping makes this a successful approach to instruction. Teachers differentiate the four classroom elements based on student readiness, interest, or learning profile. (Tomlinson 2000). Differentiated instruction can be known as an organizing framework in teaching and learning which calls for a major restructuring in the classroom and syllabus, if done in the proper way, its benefits will transgress the costs.
They should be actively involved in its implementation and its importance in lifelong learning. Generally, students judge their own work against a given criteria, provide information on how they can improve on that work in future and then grade their work. When the word “formative” is used in conjunction with assessment or evaluation, it connotes an improvement process while the word “summative” is used to describe a decision making process. 2.6 Distinctions between Self-assessment and Self-evaluation Assessment and Evaluation are necessary and complementary in education. Educators use assessment and evaluation to help their students build lifelong learning skills.
This sub-section tried to review the nature of curriculum, its implementation, and then the effect on student teachers reflective learning practices. Reflective teacher education naturally follows the innovative and reflective paradigm of teacher education, which is theorized and grounded from the cognitive and constructive learning theories and principles (Huizen, et al). Therefore, it gives more attention in enhancing student teachers’ self learning, rather than receiving information as it is (Choy, 2012; Daudelin, 1996) from sources that they assumed as authoritative by practicing reflection over the theoretical and practical experiences while teacher education curricula are delivered. Such intentions at the teacher education are best served
Student teachers have to practice themselves because practical knowledge and skills are held by the individual and cannot easily be transmitted from person to person. Student teachers need know-how, and by connecting the skills of teaching to knowledge, through reflection, they will gradually start developing practical skills. An important role of the practicum is to support experience to the teaching. The strongest factor effects on retention seems to be the quality of the first teaching experiences, and what student teachers experience in their practicum creates their view of the profession. It is therefore crucial that student teachers are given quality practice areas.
This assignment will critically discuss the role of a mentor when assessing student accurately. Supporting, assessing, teaching, accountability and the barriers which hinder the accurate assessment will be discussed. A mentor is someone who can assess, teach, support and facilitate the learning needs of a student in a clinical placement (NMC 2008). There are so many roles of a mentor assessing, adviser, role model, problem solver, teacher, support, organiser and planner. Mentors have the responsibility of assessing students accurately by establishing effective working relationships, facilitating learning environment, accountable and assessment (NMC 2008).
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background to the Study Effective teaching is important to learning and teachers at whatever level will go an extra mile in preparing instructional activities and gathering instructional materials that are appropriate for a particular instruction. The products of teaching such as knowledge, attitude and skills acquisition are much dependent on the teacher’s effective teaching. Effectiveness of a teacher and students learning can be enhanced through the appropriate strategy adopted in a learning situation. The primary objective of teaching is to enhance meaningful learning. Ausubel (1968) defined meaningful learning as being thorough, well assimilated into cognitive structure and one that can be retrieved easily
Teachers have multi dimensional role in the process of education i.e. in assisting administration, guiding and counseling students both in their effective learning as well as their future role in society as a responsible citizen. Successful or good teaching is the teaching which does bring about the desired learning. The challenge of education thus stresses the need for orientation in skills and methodology for teachers in colleges and universities. Branford, Brown and Cocking (1999) also described the state of an effective and high-quality teacher when they noted: The requirement of super level teaching is that the teachers have a deep understanding of the its subject matter content and its structure, with all of this an equally complete understanding of the method of teaching activities that help students understand the subject matter which is taught by the teacher.
Values acquisition goes on constantly in the educational process through various activities like instruction, relationship between pupils, co-curricular activities etc. So education has a major role in inculcating basic values of humanism, socialism and national integration among the children and it presents a challenging task before the teacher and taught. As an integral part of education system, the need of the hour is to have competent, committed and professionally qualified teachers who can meet the demands of the society. The teachers must show excellence in the output as well as interactions which develop knowledge and ethical values among students and create educative environment .Therefore the role of teacher educator is of paramount importance.