Personal Epistemological Theory

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Epistemological beliefs: epistemology is a theory of knowledge which dealt with “the origin, nature, source, limits, and justification of human knowledge” (Audi, 1998; Klein, 1998, as cited in Sitoe, 2006, p.22). In other words, it concerns with the nature of knowledge and knowing. This theory originated from a challenge to answer a basic question: “whether knowledge is achieved through reason (rationalism) or it is attained through experience (empiricism) (Dancy, 1985; Woozley, 1966, as cited in Schommer, 1998, p.129). Rationalists believed that knowing and learning occur when an individual can use his reasoning ability and reach a rational conclusion. From their viewpoint sensorial experiences are not reliable, because senses can make mistake.…show more content…
These beliefs have a direct influence on learner’s cognitive processes in the course of learning. According to Hofer (2001), personal epistemology is “the study of how individuals develop a conception of knowledge and knowledge acquisition, and how they use that conception to understand the world” (p.355). There are two main paradigm for personal epistemology: developmental paradigm (one-dimensional) and epistemological beliefs system paradigm (multi-dimensional. The first one is based on Piaget’s cognitive development theory. It considers personal epistemology as a result of “evolving stages of personally held beliefs about knowledge and knowing”…show more content…
 Goal setting: teacher helps students to set goal for themselves and present suitable ways to achieve them.
 Challenge: teacher should please learner’s needs for challenge to prepare them to do more difficult and complex tasks.
 Awareness of change: learner should be aware of their own development in learning process to gain more control on learning.
 A belief in positive outcomes: teacher creates this feeling in learner that there is always a solution for any problem.
 Sharing: teacher should encourage cooperation among learners, so that learner get aware that cooperation has a better result to them. They prepare for participation in a larger social community.
 Individuality: besides cooperation, learner should understand the importance of individuality. Then, he/she can be more flexible when he/she confronts different ideas.
 A sense of belonging: teacher is responsible for involving learner in group activity to create a sense of belonging to a community. It promotes the effectiveness of learning as well as
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