There are many perspectives in defining ethics, morals and values. Ethics are viewed as a theoretic and moral consideration of what are “good”, “right” or “worthy” actions (Pack-Brown, Thomas, & Seymour, 2008). In the individual sense, ethics are seen as behaviours associated with the principles and values that are acceptable to the society (Taft & White, 2007). Morality, on the other hand, refers to “judgements of justice, rights, and welfare pertaining to how people ought to treat each other” and it helps to keep the harmony between people (Bartels, Bauman, Cushman, Pizarro, & Macgraw, 2015). Values are general principles used to guide actions and people use it to rationalise their behaviours.
Ethical Issues in Social Work Practice The social work profession and its Code of Ethics dictate that social workers must act in the best interest of the client, even when those actions challenge the practitioner’s personal, cultural and religious values. In practice; however, ethical decision-making is more complex than in theory. As helping professionals, social workers are constantly faced with ethical decision-making or ethical dilemmas. As noted by Banks (2005), an ethical dilemma occurs “when a worker is faced with a choice between two equally unwelcome alternatives that may involve a conflict of moral principles, and it is not clear what choice will be the right one” (as cited in McAuliffe & Chenoweth, 2008, p. 43). In addition, ethical decision-making is a process that encompasses a great use of self-awareness and critical thinking by the practitioner.
Generally, ethics is defined as the rule for carrying out certain behaviors by distinguishing between acceptable and unacceptable behavior (Resnik, 2015). In other words, ethics assists in determining whether a decision is right or wrong when given a choice. As a matter of course, decision-making is first predisposed by personal ethic that is constructed on personal experience and conscience (Fritzsche & Oz, 2007) . It tends to be affected by family and friends (Ferrell & Gresham, 1985). Not only does personal ethics guide human behavior but also social ethics (Shaw, 2002).
Since social workers work with a variety of populations, they experience some dilemmas during delivering their services to clients, hence the need for ethical conduct. According to Barker (2003) an ethical dilemma refers to a situation that occurs when two or more moral values seem to be equally legal but contradictory and the practitioner is required to make the best possible choice from among them. So it is important to have ethics that will help in taking ethical decisions. Barker (2003) defines ethics as a system of moral principles and perceptions about right versus wrong and the resulting philosophy of conduct that is practiced by a
Introduction Ethics is a branch of philosophy which decides the moral conduct in the society as to what is right and what is wrong. It helps to differentiate the wrong deeds and the right deeds. Though a concrete definition of right deeds and wrong deed is not given by this philosophy but this philosophy help one to understand the principles on which moral ethics are based. Through these principles one is able to decide whether his deed is right or wrong. One may ask oneself questions based on the principles of ethics to get the difference between right actions and wrong actions (Roger, 2011).
The APA devised ethical principles and standards in the field of psychology in order to provide a common order for practitioners. The principles are guides and the standards are rules, each supporting the other. The ethical norms within both the standards and the principles offer convergence of ideas at many points and divergent ideas at other points. The five principles within the Code of Conduct are used to justify actions and behaviors in order to protect, respect, and appreciate a person’s rights and values in all situations. When practitioners are faced with ethical dilemmas, they must refer to the common base provided by the APA and proceed with the recommendations there in.
A law enforcement organization is an agency with an ethical system which must display their allegiance and integrity to the public. And the ethical system in policing context refers to the moral values that are generally accepted as professional standards in policing. According to the Encarta electronic dictionary, ethics can be explained as the study of proper standards and how they affect a system of moral values governing the suitable conduct for a person or group. To further understand the concept of ethics, ethics can be divided into two perspectives or theories, commonly known as deontological (non-consequentialism) and teleological (consequentialism). These two perspectives are important for a police officer to carry out their duties
Theoretical ethics asks questions about ethical values origins, justification and evaluation and is generally divided into meta-ethics, applied ethics, and normative ethics, whereas practical ethics focuses on their application to specific issues. Meta-ethics is “the study of the origin and meaning of ethical concepts”.5 It investigates where humans derive their ethical principles from, and what they mean to them. What is moral or ethical goodness? Is one such question it seeks to answer, it focuses on “universal truths, the will of God, and the role of reason in ethical judgments”.6 It also explores as well as connect between values, reasons for action, and human motivation, by asking how it is that moral standards provide us with reasons to do or not to do as it demands. Here moral relativism and moral absolutism are brought in.
Moral Autonomy is mainly based on the psychology of moral development. The first psychological theory was developed by Jean Piaget. On the basis of Piaget’s theory, Lawrence Kohlberg has also developed three main levels of moral development which is based on the types of logic and motivation adopted by individuals related to moral questions. 2.7.1 The Pre Conventional Level It is known as self-centered attitude. In this level, right conduct is very important for an individual which directly benefits himself.
Ethics is a moral principle or value that comes within our everyday life. It is the study of standard behavior, which promotes human welfare and “the good”. Business behavior is the most important concern for business ethics because unethical behaviors may damage a business’s status and name. Ethics is not based on our feelings or following the laws. Rather, it is based on standards at which we guide our behaviors and determine what should be done and what shouldn’t.