Personal Hygiene: Toothpaste In Everyday Life

2300 Words10 Pages
Chemistry in everyday life. Nguyen Dinh Nguyen SCH4U Eva Strazimiri October 15, 2014 Personal Hygiene Toothpaste The most common teeth disease is caries, which is the destruction of teeth’s layer by microorganism that produce lactic acid. The outer tissue of our teeth is called the enamel. It is very hard and durable. The composition of it is close to hydroxyapatite Ca5OH(PO4)3. If we do not brush our teeth regularly, then the leftovers will remain between our teeth. Those food leftovers are then soaked in saliva, which later created slightly soluble salt. When microorganisms decompose the leftovers, they produce lactic acid (mainly), which lowers the saliva’s pH to 4.0-5.0 in our mouth (usually pH is close to 6.75 for a clean mouth).…show more content…
Ironically, Saccharin, sucralose and aspartame (artificial sweeteners) were all invented by accident, when scientists were exploring other chemicals. Nowadays many people use artificial sweeteners in coffee instead of sugar in order to not gain weight. And there are few reasons for their choice, such as diabetes and obesity. The most famous artificial sweeteners are 1) Saccharin Compared to ordinary sugar (sucrose), it is 550 times sweeter. Because it has an unpleasant bitter aftertaste, other sweeteners are added to saccharin. It can be found in toothpaste, drinks, candies and medicines. It is not used in baking because it is unstable in heat. It is a very good substitute sugar for diabetics since it does not need digestion. The IUPAC name for saccharin is 2-benzothiazol-1,1,3-trione, and its molecular formula is C7H5NO3S. 2) Aspartame It is 100 times sweeter than sugar (sucrose). It can only be found in cold foods since it is unstable in heat. It's molecular formula is C14H18N2O5. It is made of two amino acids: aspartic acid and phenylalanine. It is considered one of the most dangerous artificial sweeteners because it has many side effects. 3)…show more content…
Some of the food additives are produced from natural food, but mostly they are created by chemists. Each food additive has its own code. This code is different in different parts of the world: in Australia and New Zealand 3 digit number is used; in Europe a letter E is added to the 3 digit code; while in the USA it is just labeled as GRAS (generally recognized as safe). In this table, you can find food additives codes used in Europe: Meanings of indications: 1) Antioxidants are substances that slow down the processes of fermentation and oxidation in foods. 2) Thickeners are substances that make foods firmer. 3) Stabilizers are substances that prevent changes of a food's state. 4) Emulsifiers are substances that stabilize an emulsion, which is a mixture made of unmixable liquids. 5) Antibiotics are substances that slowdowns the growth of microorganisms. Some of the food additives are dangerous because they can cause allergies, stomachaches or can even lead to tumors (when consumed in large quantities). Some of the food additives can be approved in one part of the world and not approved in another part, for example, Amaranth is only approved in the

More about Personal Hygiene: Toothpaste In Everyday Life

Open Document