In other words, most researches firmly believe that knowledge is constructed, but some (e.g. main stream instructional designers) do not adopt an instructional design that is labelled "constructivist". Typically, a constructivist teaching strategy is based on the belief that students learn best when they gain knowledge through exploration and active learning. Hands-on materials are used instead of textbooks, and students are encouraged to think and explain their reasoning instead of memorizing and reciting facts. Education is centered on themes and concepts and the connections between them, rather than isolated information.
Other theories which underpins authentic assessment is Experiential Learning Theory by David Kolb and Situated Learning Theory which was theorized by Lave and Wenger. Experiential learning occurs by making sense of direct everyday experiences. Concrete experiences provide the information that serves as a basis for reflection. On the other hand, Situated Learning Theory is learning in the same contexts in which concepts and theories are applied. Research has shown that real-life applied activities and problem-solving activities establish a contextual setting for many lessons, providing motivation and encouraging curiosity.
Research in educational domain is likewise exploiting this advancement by highlighting all aspects of individuals which are worth the investigation and consideration for an effective learning to occur. This prompted researchers to pedagogically extend an operational definition for self-regulated learning. Learners are much more valued in the contemporary educational system in so far as their roles as the builders of knowledge are more gratified. SR is congruent with constructivism and learner-centered education. Self-regulated learning is in parallel with constructivist view of learning and teaching in that it puts learner at the epicenter of learning and construction of knowledge and, hence, it merits more heed in contemporary education.
To improve learning in higher education, the primary focus should be on engaging students in a process that best enhances their learning – a process that contains feedback on the effectiveness of their learning efforts. Education must be conceived as a continuing reconstruction of experience, the process and goal of education are one and the same thing. Dewey (1897) all learning is re-learning. Learning is best facilitated by a process that draws out the students’ beliefs and ideas about a topic so that they can be examined, tested and integrated with new, more refined ideas. Learning needs the resolution of conflicts between dialectically opposed modes of adaptation to the world.
Definition of a Learning Organisation The ‘Learning Organisation’ has a number of definitions by various theorists. A learning organisation is one which is open to change and development. Continuous learning by organisation members is vital in order to make a learning organisation work. Wick and Leon (1995) defined a learning organisation as one that ‘continually improves by rapidly creating and refining the capabilities required for future success.’ ‘Learning organizations [are] organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to see the whole together.’
But it something which takes place in our mind and bodies, that connects us all with our physical, social and mental world. Learning, which can occur in many ways, happens through relations and comparisons, evaluations we constantly make by interacting with the world outside us and with the world inside us. Nowadays neuroscience and biological studies it is evident that learning changes our bodies, by embodying our memories, causing chemical and physical reactions that lead to our behaviours as living relational creatures. So, for all these reasons we could consider the process of learning almost like breathing, there is no life without it. And that why it is so important for all of
The relevance to the dimension of quality is that it is possible to identify the features of courses that foster a surface or deep approach (Entwistle, 2000). In addition, learning is argued as an activity that combines the aspects of ‘what’ and ‘how’ and, most importantly, how the two aspects are integrated during the learning process. The ‘what’ aspect concerns the activity of learning, and the ‘how’ aspect concerns the structure of a learning task (how learning is done). How the two aspects are merged inform whether students employ a deep approach or a surface approach to learning (Ramsden, 2003). Thus, if learning is focused on the content, e.g.
They are: the need to know, a sense of autonomy, the importance of life experiences and knowledge, the readiness to learn, the need for practical and applicable learning, and internal motivation. The need to know refers to the understanding of knowing how and why to create a valuable lesson. Having feedback from reflection allows the learner to lean towards new learning and at the same time realize that learning never stops. A sense of autonomy refers to a functional need of a change in behaviour, developing a need for autonomy, structure for self growth, and self directed learning. The importance of life experiences and knowledge means that adults wants to apply their knowledge to what they do and to be acknowledged for it.
Learning is a continuous process of dynamic commitment with experience and knowledge. Learning vitalizes in terms of acquiring new knowledge, or reinforces existing knowledge, personal behaviors and skills or preferences. Learning helps an individual to enhance their knowledge and also involve in developing skills, understanding and ideas more advanced. An effective learning is always leads to change, development and the desire to learn more. Learning styles include a progression of theories suggesting organized differences in individuals' natural or consistent model of acquiring and processing information in learning situations.
It has been at the center of educational psychology. Even though psychologists agree on the significance of learning as a topic of study, they often fail to agree on the mechanics of how the process of learning occurs. Shunk et al. (2012), define learning as "the process of acquiring a relatively permanent change in understanding, attitude, knowledge, information, ability, and skill is