Emperors varied in their adherence to the philosophy. For example, emperors Vespasian and Domitian despised Stoicism’s teachings, while Emperor Marcus Aurelius was devoted to it. Stoicism eventually influenced the religion of Christianity, especially the tenets and teachings of living ethically. The focus of this paper will be on the relationship between Stoicism and the universe, the influences of logic and nature, and the drive of humans to live an ethical life. Zeno of Citium created the Stoic school to teach his followers the path toward living a virtuous life.
As a result, Plato is kenned for his fixate on virtue ethics, an approach to ethics that places highlight on one's moral character. This is where the divine command theory comes in. It is the view of morality in which what is right is what God commands, and what is wrong is what God forbids. This view is one that ties together morality in and religion in a way that is very comfortable for most people, because it provides a solution to pesky arguments like moral relativism and the objectivity of ethics. Looking at the Euthyphro argument, this theory comes up in order to answer the question of ethics being whether something is wrong because God forbids it or whether God prohibits it because it is already wrong.
Thomas Aquinas defined greed as a sin against God, just like any other sin would be against God, man who condemns himself just for temporary possessions (Aquinas). Another deadly sin that could also directly oppose charity is envy. Envy is the counterpart of kindness. An example of it is wishing that you had a possession that someone else had or wishing that they didn’t have it. It counters against charity, because charity you are to love and care for others around you.
In the later, he weakens the importance of reason in Platonism, however, he is able to rectify a seemingly antagonistic relationship between faith and reason. Augustine successfully brought Platonism into Christianity; he reconciled issues such as the existence of a spiritual world and the problem of accounting for evil. Platonism’s ontology allowed Augustine to conceptualize the existence of a spiritual world and claim God, like the forms, is the ultimate source for the existence of all things and ideas within the physical world. Augustine’s application of Platonist doctrines not only helps explain and rationalize Christian faith, it also resolves issues within Christianity, such as, God’s omnipotence and omni-benevolence, and the problem of
The superego, or the conscience as we call it, is where the battle is fought between our old carnal nature and our new godly nature. Freud thought the superego was created specifically by social influence. Christians, however, believe that our morality comes from God more than social influences. The psychoanalyst’s goal is to bring the unconscious to the conscious which sounds like revealing the “thoughts and attitudes of the heart” we read about in Scripture (Hebrews 4:12). Though Freud claimed that self-awareness and ego strength are enough to make us healthy individuals, we know that true holistic health only comes through God and His
The idea is that certain actions are right as the God wills for us. The Russian novelist Fyodor Dostoevsky’s provides the Kernel of one of the argument that is often used in defense of divine command ethics. According to Dostoevsky’s writings, he claim that, ‘If God is dead, then everything is permissible.’ This expresses the alarm that is if there were no God then there would be no morality. (Barbara Mackinnon & Andrew Fiala, 2015). Furthermore, defenders of the divine command theory like Alston have faced the Euthyphro dilemma by says that although God’s commands make right actions right, God is morally perfect and hence would never issue unjust or immoral commandments.
While the reactions of hostility and awe demonstrate that Christianity is God’s chosen religion, and that Islamic people are the enemy, their criticisms of Christians’ sins are correct. Christendom’s punishment for this is the loss of the Holy Land, but these mistakes are reversible and destined to occur. The ultimate insight from Mandeville’s description of the Islamic kingsdoms is that Europeans believed their continent to be a shining light of good surrounded by darkness and violence. However, rather than retreat from the outside, Europeans praised the courageous explorers who ventured out of the safety of Christendom to grow the kingdom of Christ. Mandeville’s message of Islam’s flaws and criticisms are, like most medieval literature, ultimately optimistic.
These are open to all, whatever their level of intelligence. These religious view foster the idea of a moral self: Each of is capable of great good, but also great evil. Refusing to serve and love god is the greatest evil. We do good when we make God the centre of our lives; we do wrong when we retreat from this commitment. Plato strongly influenced Christian thought and Christians like Augustine adopted Plato’s view that the self or soul is rational, immaterial, and immortal and not basically self-interested.
Thesis Statement: Origin of Morality Outline A.Universal Ethics 1.Karl Barth, The Command of God 2.Thomas Aquinas, The Natural Law 3.Thomas Hobbes, Natural Law and Natural Right 4.Immanuel Kant, The Categorical Imperative B.Morality and Practical Reason 1.Practical Reason a.Practical Reason and Practical Reasons C.Evolution of Morality 1.What makes Moral Creatures Moral 2.Explaining the Nature of Moral Judgments F. Answering Questions 1. What is the origin of Morality: Religion or Philosophy? 2. What does religion say about morality? 3.
Philosophy of Religion is the branch of philosophy that is concerned with the philosophical study of religion, including arguments over the nature and existence of God, religious language, miracles, prayer, the problem of evil, and the relationship between religion and other value-systems such as science and ethics. (The Basics of Philosophy, 2008) Most of Rizal’s written works contain religious ideas. It has been argued on whether he believes in most or just selectively. But of course, we know that he was raised by Donya Teodora to be a religious boy. However, criticisms began when he became a member of the Masonry in the latter part of his life.