However, the pill went on to cause more than 10,000 babies to be born with birth defects (Science). Thousands of babies had deformities because tests on hamsters and rats showed the pill to be effective. Additionally, “Animal tests on the arthritis drug Vioxx showed that it had a protective effect on the hearts of mice, yet the drug went on to cause more than 25,000 heart attacks and sudden cardiac deaths before being pulled from the market” (Vioxx). Animal testing is extremely misleading in the medical field. Scientists attempt to link the results of testing drugs on animals to its effectiveness on humans.
Animal testing is known as vivisection and in vivo. There are approximately 12.1 million animal experiments were conducted annually in Europe (Murnaghan, 2010). Animal testing has been practiced across the history of medical research and one of the famous researchers was Galen, ‘Father of Vivisection’. In recent years, a lot of animal rights groups and animal protections have criticised about the practice of using animals for biomedical research (Hajar, 2011). To illustrate, European Union regulators have decided to forbid on the import and sale of cosmetic that contain ingredients that had tested on animals and pledge to pursue China to accept alternatives (Kanter, 2013).
There are several reasons to why animal testing needs to be stopped. The method of animal testing is ‘bad science’ since The Food and Drug Administration reports that 92 out of every 100 drugs that pass animal tests fail in humans. Animals might have similarities to humans but they’re not exactly the same, which means testing on animals is useless. Because of that, animal testing is also an act of wasting our time, money and resources that we can spend on other human-relevant researches. In America, 106,000 deaths a year are attributed to reactions to medical drugs.
Jeff Flake, an United States Senator wrote for the Waste book, stated, “...Over $7.3 million of taxpayers ' money was wasted on studies involving animals in 2016.” Animal testing, also known as animal researching, animal research is the use of animals in experiments that help us find cures and test products to see if they are safe or not. Not testing animals will not help us get cured and test results. Animals testing should not be used because of cures, cruelty, and costs. It has been stated that animals should be used in researching and testing because they cure us. Animal Research.Info, a group that understands animal research, stated, “Animal research has also contributed to major advances in understanding and treating conditions such as breast cancer, brain injury, childhood leukemia, cystic fibrosis, malaria, multiple sclerosis, tuberculosis, and many others, and was instrumental in the development of pacemakers, cardiac valve substitutes, and anesthetics.” However, animals should not be used in researching and testing because they do not help cure us.
“A Question of Ethics” by Jane Goodall and “Animal Research Saves Lives” by Heloisa Sabin presents two sides of the same coin in regards to Animal testing. Thereby, questioning the validity or necessity of animal research and testing today. In “A Question of Ethics” by Goodall she presents a scenery of the living conditions of the animals which are often isolated; posing the ultimate questions of, whether animal research is essential to medical research? Or How many tests are performed only to conform to laws and not out of scientific merit? The Suggestion was made that scientists should explore alternative options, such as testing on cell and tissue cultures.
We need to refocus and adapt new methodologies for use in humans to understand disease biology in humans” said by Dr. Elias Zerhouni, former director of the National Institutes of Health (8 Expert Quotes Admitting That Testing on Animals Is Unreliable, page 2). According to statistics, an estimated 17 to 22 million animals are used each year in research, education and testing across the world. Of those animals, the majority of them are used right here in the United States alone. “According to studies the total amount of animals killed each year in research are 19,500,000 which is a lot of animals” (www.statisticbrain.com/animal-testing-statistics/. ) Those who are in favor of animal experimentation say “they’re taking animals lives to save humans”.
This essay will put forward some of the arguments for and against animal testing using data and information from published articles to develop an unbiased and balanced conclusion. One of the arguments for animal testing is that certain cosmetics and medicines have to be tested on animals to certify their safety. For example in China, they feel the necessity for all cosmetics to be tested on animals before they go on sale, so companies have to do this before they are able to distribute it across the country. Some products like mosquito repellent must go through toxicological testing which involves testing it on animals before it can be sold in the US or Europe. The US Food and Drug Administration recommends the use of animal testing on makeup
So with that Commercial and Scientific animal testing should be supported because it can help scientist find a cancer, it can provide life saving treatments and medicines, and that it can benefit the animals. Animal testing can help scientists further their research for a cancer cure. For example, author Ian Murnaghan says that, “Animal testing is held particularly important for its contribution to the development of insulin, antibiotics, vaccines and drugs with high mortality rates such as cancer.” (Murnaghan) This means that, animal testing is important to cancer research. Also it means that that the development for antibiotics and other medicines need animal testing. Cancer patients need antibiotics to treat their cancer.
Some makeup products that are still being used on animals are: Benefit, Clinique, Estee Lauder, Makeup Forever, Maybelline, OPI, Victoria Secret, and Avon. Over 100 million animals are killed in these labs, an estimated 17 to 22 million vertebrate animals are used each year in research, education, and testing. The drugs used to kill the cancer cells in Greg Maas´s body have been screened and tested many different ways over the past several decades inbred some strains of mice susceptible to leukemia. In the 1950s sleeping pills thalidomide, which caused 10,000 babies to be born with severe types of deformities, was tested on animals prior to its commercial release. Later tests on pregnant mice, rats, guinea pigs, cats, and hamsters did not result in birth defects unless the drug was administered at extremely high doses.
Penicillin, insulin, and Polio vaccine are some life-saving cures and medical treatment which was found by using animals as an experimental objects. The experiment using dog with its pancreas being removed beforehand led to the discovery of insulin which is critical to help diabetics. The polio vaccine, which originally was tested on animals, reduced the global occurrence of the disease from 350,000 cases in 1988 to 223 cases in 2012. Even the California Biomedical Research Association states that “for more than a hundred years, virtually every medical breakthrough in human and animal health has been the direct result of research using animals.” It clearly indicates that without “animal testing” we may not be able to achieve these big medical breakthroughs