Particle matter, which is also known as PM, is when a high concentrate of minute particles of dust, sand or smoke which is found in the air affects cardiovascular health. The main cause of this, is automobiles. The Environmental Protection Agency, known as EPA, brings attention to how the most dangerous particles, are the ones that are small enough to be unseen by the naked eye. Steve Milloy however, has a different approach to this problem, and claims it misinformation. He compared statistics from the EPA website that said PM2.5 kills 432,000 nonsmokers per year.
We know smoking is dangerous, but how dangerous? A lit cigarette contains over 4000 chemicals, 70 that are known to cause cancer, including: Tar, carbon monoxide, nicotine, acetone, ammonia, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, formaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide. Why do adolescents smoke? Teenagers smoke for several reasons and often for the same reasons as adults do, coping with stress, control weight or as a social habit. Many adolescents began smoking because of “peer pressure”.
Smoking is harmful to the body as it causes many types of diseases including cancer and asthma to many parts of the body, including the lungs, throat, stomach and, the mouth. A study by the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services states “More than 16 million people already have at least one disease from smoking”. Another study shown by U.S.
On average, smokers die 14 years earlier than non-smokers." It is also important to know that cigarettes contain many poisonous ingredients and chemicals. "Cigarettes contain over 4,000 chemicals and 2,000 poisons – including toxins found in nail polish remover, rat poisoning, battery acid, and rocket fuel." To add, smoking at a young age has a frightening consequence. "Underage smoking (under age 18) is not only unhealthy, it is illegal.
In addition, smoking had been associated with different types of cancers including bladder, blood, esophagus, colon, and rectum. (8) On the other hand, the consumption of tobacco can cause premature death, on average, smokers lose 15 years of their life, and up to 50% of smokers will die of tobacco-related causes. (9) Should smoking patterns continue the risk of premature death increases among middle-aged adults. Furthermore, adults who continue smoking have a higher probability of death compared to patients with the same disease who never smoked or who quit smoking after being diagnosed with the
Although China is the main concern, the air pollution throughout the world is also detrimental as “98% of cities in low- and middle-income countries with more than 100,000 inhabitants do not meet WHO air quality guidelines. However, in high-income countries, that percentage decreases to 56%” (“Air pollution,” 2016, para. 2). The reason that air pollution is extremely harmful is that of its increased risk of lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, and chronic and acute respiratory diseases, including
In the past two decades, Atriums and large space are commonly shown in big commercial building such as office buildings, warehouses, or retail, shopping malls, etc.) And modern high raises buildings, airports, car parking, large workshops and others. However, smoke is potentially lethal that would rapidly spread to other parts of the building, such as open corridor to the atrium at higher level. Smoke control is therefore important in the atrium building designs [ , , ] and understanding the smoke movement and smoke filling process is essential. Actually, toxic smoke has led to about 85% of deaths in building fires [ ].
It has caused many deaths in the latest decades. For example, the website of the government of British Columbia district in Canada published that 25-250 people die every year because of air pollution related diseases, whereas, 108 die every year from smoking ( B.C. Air Quality, n.d.) . In this report, we will try to give an overview of the problem by asking main questions: What is air pollution? How bad it really is?
Tobacco smoke combats health principally because of the mixture of over 4,000 dangerous chemicals such as carbon monoxide and ammonia, forming a sticky substance called tar. Stop smoking booklet by Bolton NHS Foundation Trust explains that tar sticks to the insides of the lungs and damages the little brooms called cilia, losing the cleaning function which makes the person susceptible to diseases and disorders. It is always said that it is expensive to be sick nowadays. Definitely, this saying is proven to be true. In fact, according to an Inquirer report by Tubeza (2011), nearly P500 billion annually is spent by the country for healthcare costs and productivity losses because of smoking.
As a fallout of economic growth in urban areas, high concentration of industries and thermal power plants and vehicular contribute to air pollutants in urban locations.The World Health Organization estimates that about two million people die prematurely every year as a result of air pollution, while many more suffer from breathing ailments, heart disease, lung infections and even cancer. In view of the health hazards posed by increasing air pollution, it will be useful to have a model that can predict the level of atmospheric pollutants and a geospatial interpolation approach to forecast the air pollutants over the whole domain. (WHO/UNEP (1992)) Artificial intelligence based methodologies such as artificial neural networks can help to forecast the pollutants in complicated non-linear contexts. The predictive accuracy obtained by