Henry Ford once said, “Coming together is a beginning; keeping together is progress. Working together is success” (Brainy Quote). From here, the concept of inclusive education, including students with and without learning disabilities as peers in the same classroom, originated. The aim of this type of education is to get students with learning disabilities involved in the society. Teachers and fellow students will also provide help for students with disabilities; in this way, students with learning disabilities will be motivated to study as they feel that they are a part of a group instead of being isolated in special places.
However, it is evident that school systems perpetuate existing inequalities. The reason for this is linked to deeply ingrained attitudes and believes about human differences. While dealing with exclusion, marginalization and underachievement is difficult but is the appropriate thing to do, and makes sound economic and social sense. Hence, the development of successful inclusive schools in which the learning and participation of all children is valued is an essential task. The Context of Inclusive Education Inclusive education has been internationally recognized as a philosophy for attaining equity, justice and quality education for all children, especially those who have been
Some students were more affected by a specific learning disability than others, but it created a safe and positive learning environment for all the students to be a part of, no matter how much their learning disability impacted them. This is a start for inclusive education, although it needs to be implemented in general education classrooms as well. Inclusion is starting to be implemented in a way that literature and articles says it should be, but, more steps could be taken to implement it even further, so that it becomes nationwide. After gathering information and searching through articles, our group members have decided to make more individuals who are involved in education aware of inclusive classrooms. As well as hoping to be able to be a part of an inclusive classroom once we are all certified and
In schools, inclusive classrooms will foster positive attitudes among the school members by educating all children together and leading to better social unity. Furthermore, inclusive classroom is the effective means of overcoming discriminatory attitudes and creating welcoming communities. Thus, the stakeholders and the students themselves play important roles in creating positive culture in the school so that every student can enjoy learning in harmony. One of the main goals of inclusive education is encouraging everyone to appreciate and value for diversity as well as develop understanding of the differences. Students with special needs in inclusive classrooms are found to be more accepted by their peers and included more often than their peers in segregated remedial program(Okagaki et al, 1998 and Slavin, 1992).
Reverse integration is a program that includes typically developing learners in a self-contained special education class (Perles,2012). It is a program also known as reverse inclusion was designed to foster positive support and interaction among typically-abled and disabled learners. Typically, this practice are being used to pre-school and kindergarten age in order to develop positive social culture among learners. Furthermore, the reverse integration is a program of interaction targeting academic and social goals for each learner (Baker,2015). The social and academic benefits of inclusion of students with disabilities in regular classes have been well documented (Drasgow&Stoxen,2003).
Regardless of the size of campuses and quality of education, almost all universities in Pakistan are inaccessible for disabled students. People with disabilities are granted the right to quality education and employment opportunities. It is a mandate of the government to, respect their rights and provide reasonable accommodation to their particular needs and hence, start a comprehensive special education school improvement project. A positive attitude of teachers, parents and society is also needed to eradicate the problems faced by people with disabilities. Along with adopting different measures and with the help of other stakeholders, media can play a very vital role in advocacy movements for awareness about problems, faced by people with disabilities, and their
History of Educational Equity: The earliest interpretations of Educational equity emerged in response to the Civil Rights Act which urged for equal educational opportunities to children of different race, color, religion and national origin. Equity assumed society had an obligation to provide a free education in a geographically accessible area and provide exposure to a common core curriculum. To be denied these things was to be treated inequitably. Whether or not the child chooses to benefit from this education is left up to the student and family. From the first glance this interpretation resembles the exact definition of equality stated above.
Children with special educational needs will have the opportunity to receive the same standard of normal schooling. Experts and scholars advocated integrated education because students with special educational needs should be educated with ordinary students in the general class (Gartner & Lipsky, 1987; Giangreco & Putnam, 1991) The ideas of teaching everyone without discrimination avoid the label effect of between disabilities and the normal people. Also, it provides the concept of the zero refused. The integrated education includes the educational philosophy of zero refused, integration of the class arrangement, barrier-free learning environment, cross-team education services and individualized education program (Ms. Fu, n.d). The government though that integrated education can improve overall educational effectiveness and cost effectiveness.
(Lipsky and Gartner cited in Garry Hornby, 1999). In conclusion, we can see that integration is viewed as a positive step in the socialization and education of students with special need or disabilities because they receive the same educational and social opportunities that non-disabled students receive. However, integration creates somewhat of a dilemma for educators in raising the question of how can the special and unique educational needs of students with disabilities be fully met in a regular classroom of 35-40 students. Therefore, the concern is not whether to provide integrated education, but how to implement it in feasible and effective ways to ensure school success for all children, especially those with special needs (Baker and Wang,
Question 1 Introduction In the writer own view, Inclusive education is the notion that the education system should and must be design to be access by all people and this include people who ordinarily might not have access to education such as people with disabilities and the malnourished people. In other words Inclusive education ensure that a country education system is inclusive, sensitive and responsive to the needs of all children The UNESCO, (2009) define Inclusive education process of addressing and responding to the diverse needs of all children and the youth, through increasing participation in learning, cultures and communities, and reducing and eliminating exclusion within and from education. It involves changes and modifications