The purpose of this literature review is to prove that drug court programs are an effective alternative to incarceration for people struggling with substance abuse issues. According to the Bureau of Justice statistics seventeen percent of prisoners at the state level were incarcerated due to drug related crimes. Eighteen percent of federal cases were related to drugs (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2004). According to Lutze and Van Wormer the drug court model was formulated in response to the revolving cycle involved with substance addiction and crime.
The justice system in the United States of America is not fair. Michelle Alexander writes a great article “Locked Up In America” describing how people gets into the justice system and how their life is when coming out of jail. People that are convicted of any crime they are labeled as criminals and felons. Criminals does not get properly punished for their crimes if they did they wouldn’t be so many people going in and out of jail. The justice system should have different ways of punishing a person according to the crime they commit, just by putting them in jail and assuming that is going to change them is not a good way of going about that.
Introduction and Summary: Chapter 11 focuses on the individuals with mental illness and the criminal justice system. Every year there are hundreds of thousands of individuals with mental illness who are arrested. The past decade a lot of the state hospital and mental health facilities have been shut down for lack of funding. Many of the seriously mentally ill are roaming the streets. The serious mental illness regarding this chapter would include schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and severe depression.
A concept is a mental construct that represents some part of the world in a simplified form. Sociologists use concepts to explain various aspects of life, may it be the society, race, or, in this case, suicide in prisoners. In this paper there were major factors, which can be considered to be the concepts, put into consideration during the 34 studies carried out in 12 countries comprising of 4780 suicide cases. These factors are stated below: 1.
The article titled “Witch Trials: 4 Real Medical Illnesses That Were Mistaken For Witchcraft And The Devil” written by Elana Glowatz described four illness that show symptoms similar to ones present in accused witches. Under the section titled “Mental Illness”, a finding published by the National Institute of Health said that many of the convicted witches or people allegedly possessed by witchcraft most likely displayed visible mental distress. Basically, symptoms of mental illness were present in the accused witches. There are specific possible disorders that could have symptoms similar to those present in circumstances concerning witchcraft including epilepsy, ergot poisoning, encephalitis lethargica, and mental illnesses like schizophrenia. (Glowatz).
In his article, Removing the Stigma of Past Incarceration: Ban the Box, Bill Mosley explains it is “understandable that many employers may believe it is their best interest to avoid hiring ex-convicts. But it is also in the interest of society at large to reintegrate ex-convicts into society and to stop adding to the large underclass of former prisoners with minimal prospects of earning an honest living.” Mosley acknowledges the discomfort an employer may experience knowing one of their employees have a criminal history, however he supports his opinion by immediately explaining the most effective medium of reducing the number of former prisoners in society is to integrate them into the working force. His purport in this piece of text is to accentuate the importance society as a whole has in terms of eliminating criminal discrimination. In addition to Mosley’s argument, Daryl V. Atkinson and Kathleen Lockwood, in their article The Benefits of Ban the Box, claim that “hiring people with criminal records facilitates public safety by reducing recidivism rates.”
Francis T. Cullen Assessing the Penal Harm Movement Explain the rise of the penal harm movement. How does this relate to broader issues in corrections today? The key rationale behind corrections is to punish law breakers while also reforming offenders to be constructive in society. However, the utilization of the penal harm movement, and the unintended consequences that arose from this movement suggests otherwise.
It’s hard to imagine that reform is part of that equation when one’s very life is at stake. Yet that is one of the impressions that we on the outside have of why criminals are in prisons: so that they will get better. But do they? In effort to make society appear to
When it comes to people with drug addiction the amount of recidivism can be quite alarming. Statistics show that around 1.5 million people are arrested in the US each year for drug charges: of those 1.5 million, over three-fourths are repeat offenders. That’s about 1,155,000 people a year that have been incarcerated with a repeat offense. This makes the US the fourth highest in illegal drug addiction; although, with the way the US treats drug addiction this isn’t very surprising. The majority of people with drug charges are held for 40 months or less and most will be prematurely released with parole.
We must connect to what they believe in or truth or else we are wasting our time and energy on a failing ideology which is utilitarianism. Therefore, laws are ineffective because they punish which doesn 't help society become
Martin (2011) writes that asset poverty should be combated at the micro-level and the macro-level, in doing so, reentry programs must target the ex-offender, community, and society. (p. 137). Reentry programs may focus on the bare necessities that ex-offenders may need to navigate in society and equip them with the knowledge and tools to enhance their life and overcome the tendency to commit future crimes. However, giving these ex-offenders a stake in society through asset ownership could give them a sense of inclusion in society, therefore, the desire to reoffend can decrease. Programs that focus of wealth accumulation is a great asset to include in reentry programs alongside the traditional educational and economic programs already offered (Marin,
Events such as death, being wounded can mentally shut a person down, research has shown that traumatic events such as this caused veterans to end up homeless. Veteran affairs which are known as VA have treated more than 230,000 patients for serious mental illness such Bipolar Disorder and many patients have died about 13 to 18 years younger than the regular population Davis, C. L. (2012). There was a study for veteran participants for mood disorders (CIVIC-MD), and the purpose of the study was to identify amend individuals and treatment factors connected to harmful outcomes with Bipolar Disorder Copeland, L. A. (2009). Homelessness in VA patients with Bipolar were reported 12% and 55% in a lifetime, in an analysis there were current medication was freely associated with lower risk of lifetime homelessness (odds ratio [OR] = 0.80 per point range 0-4; 95% confidence level interval [CI]= 0.66, 0.96) Bipolar is caused by homelessness in
As a felon, coming out of prison all you know is how to live in prison, many are unsure how to go back into a normal functioning society and move along productively. Restoring, but also limiting their rights is a small way to show them that they are equal to all the others in society and keeps them from feeling like outcasts and the social pariahs that this world makes them out to be. Felons and Ex felons are equal to any other american citizen, their only difference is the ex felons have made mistakes in their past that have negatively affected them and their lives. However, mistakes made from the past should not affect people 's later lives in such a way that it can keep people from the obtaining the most basic of rights, this includes voting. Restoring the voting rights of ex felons would help them learn the value of the justice system and the law to strengthen their participation in average life practices. ”
Bohm indicates that when recidivism was defined similarly, rates remained static. Researchers felt a good indicator of an inmate’s inclination to continue to commit crimes upon released was his past arrest history. Prisoners who possessed extensive records of arrest /incarceration were more likely to be rearrested; therefore implying those with fewer arrests were less likely to refrain from committing criminal acts. Bohm also states that the most critical time for an inmate to relapse and return to prison is within the first year of release, “two-thirds of all the recidivism of the first 3 years occurred in the first year” and additionally …” more than three of every ten inmates are returned to prison within 4 years…”(2012). Research indicates
Mental health courts handle people with mental illness who have been charged of a crime. Mental health court is defined as “a specialized court docket for certain defendants with mental illnesses” where the individual’s mental health is first evaluated (Bureau of Justice Assistance, 2008, p.4). Then, judicial staff and mental health professionals decide a treatment plan for the person (Bureau of Justice Assistance, 2008). Mental health court is an acceptable system because it allows people with mental illnesses to be treated differently than in a traditional court system.