Mass Smallpox Immunisation

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CHAPTER TWO
2.1 HISTORY OF VACCINES
The practice of immunization dates back hundreds of years. Buddhist monks drank snake venom to confer immunity to snake bite and variolation. Smearing of a skin tear with cowpox to confer immunity to smallpox was also practiced in China in the 17th century. Edward Jenner is considered the founder of vaccinology in the West in 1796, after he inoculated a 13 year-old-boy with vaccinia virus (cowpox), and demonstrated immunity to smallpox. The first smallpox vaccine was developed in 1798. Over the 18th and 19th centuries, systematic implementation of mass smallpox immunisation culminated in its global eradication in 1979.9
Louis Pasteur’s experiments spearheaded the development of live attenuated cholera vaccine
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It spreads easily from one person to another but can be prevented through vaccination. It is caused by the bacteria Corynebacterium diphtheria. The infection is spread through person to person contact or through contact with objects that have the bacteria on them. You may also get the bacteria if you are around an infected person when they sneeze, cough or blow their nose. An infected person who hasn’t shown any sign and symptoms of diphtheria can transmit the bacteria infection for up to six weeks after the initial…show more content…
In the pre – vaccine era, diphtheria was common, with annual reported case of 125,000 and annual death of 10,000 being reported in the united State of America11. Invention of an effective vaccine against diphtheria and following the introduction of mass immunization, the incidence of diphtheria fell to such an extent that at the beginning of the 1980’s many countries in the world are progressing towards the elimination of diphtheria.12
‘The number of reported cases of diphtheria in Nigeria has been declining. Reported cases from Nigeria were 5,039 in 1989, 3995 in 2000, 2468 in 2001, 790 in 2002, and 312 in 2006.’13
There are few reports in clinical diphtheria in Nigeria, but most of these are old reports corroborating the possible declining prevalence of diphtheria in Nigeria, however we reported 5 cases over a year period in 2009 with 40% mortality and speculate on the possible resurgence of the disease.14,15
2.2.2 PERTUSIS
Pertusis also known as whooping cough is a respiratory tract infection characterized by a paroxysmal cough. The most common causative organism is Bordetella

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