Portland cement mixed with sand, gravel and water, a process called hydration, is how concrete is created. Crushed stone aggregate fine and coarse aggregates make up the bulk of a concrete mixture. Durability of concrete may be defined as the ability of concrete to resist weathering action, chemical attack, and abrasion while maintaining its desired engi-neering properties. Different concretes require different degrees of durability de-pending on the exposure environment and properties desired. For example, concrete exposed to tidal seawater will have different requirements than an indoor concrete floor.
The scarcity of fine aggregate for the production of mortar and concrete, as partial replacement of sand by Copper Slag have been identified. Several researchers have investigated the use of copper slag in the production of cement, mortar and concrete as raw materials for clinker, cement replacement, coarse and fine aggregates. This paper reports on some experimental investigations on the influence of partial replacement of sand by copper slag on the mechanical properties of concrete. M30 grade concrete was designed using copper slag, partially replacing the fine aggregate The fine aggregate was replaced by copper slag at various percentages ranging from 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 80% and 100%. The mechanical properties of concrete determined in the laboratory include compression strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural tensile strength.
12. The TLC data obtained is provided in a table below. The TLC data was conducted solely in a 9:1 hexane/ethyl acetate solvent solution as opposed to the 1:1 and pure hexane solution as well. This was due to the lack of time, but as explained in number 7, a very polar solvent (1:1 solution) or non-polar solvent (pure hexane) is not ideal when obtaining
Shrinkage crack is caused by contraction of the total body due to loss of water content or moisture. Plastic shrinkage cracks are also formed by loss of water content in the concrete structure by evaporation. When the pace at which the water is evaporating exceeds the rate at which moisture is being supplied to it (via bleeding from the concrete), plastic shrinkage cracks are formed. It generally occurs in the plastic state (partially hardened state). Plastic shrinkage crack may not affect the strength of structure but will ruin the appearance of the structure and the crack to full depth may allow water to penetrate it.
However the Steel Wool on the table and graph show different results. This is because the initial temperature of the water inside the can was affected with by some errors. The worst insulator out of the three materials would be the Bubble Wrap because it did not keep its heat during the time intervals. Bubble wrap was not a good insulator because it had so many cold spots, the bubbles popped and the places between the bubbles, where heat readily
Hydrochloric acid and IF are important to absorb vitamin B12. However, the patient who has atrophic gastritis cannot absorb vitamin B12, which is leading to vitamin B12 deficiency. The third cause is vitamin B9 deficiency (folic acid deficiency). Folic acid is important to the formation erythrocytes and reparation the damaging cells, so folic acid deficiency caused decreasing the number of healthy erythrocytes, which causes pernicious anemia. The last cause is bone marrow diseases.
The lack of carrier protein results in blockage of glucose. Physically, insufficient of glucose will lead to a level of low blood sugar, which is known as hypoglycemia. According to Taylor and Rachman (1987), the low blood sugar will result in a poor cognitive function. The low blood sugar level will result in loss of consciousness and a rapid heart rate. Metabolically, lacking in glucose is a hindrance for ATP synthesis as well as the primary and secondary transport.
The mixture may have not been refluxed fully. Initially not all of the 5.0grams of benzoic acid went into the round-bottomed flask as there was still residue left on weighing boat. This would mean the starting amount of benzoic acid was less then stated. There was some product loss during the draining of the aqueous layers. All these will account for the low yield that was produced.