Behavioural theories focus on how leaders behave. For instance, do leaders dictate what needs to be done and expect cooperation? Or do they involve their teams in decision-making to encourage acceptance and support? In the 1930s, Kurt Lewin developed a framework based on a leader 's behaviour. He argued that there are three types of leaders: 1.
Introduction This essay will be looking at the leadership and management relationship and the role they play in sustainable organizations, with the use of theories and empirical case studies. There has been a lot of research and dispute on the management and leadership issue; this has been taking place since 1997. A lot of investigation has been done by numerous theorists, in the study and practice of leadership but up to this day, there still is not one generally accepted definition of leadership. Some of the main theorists who have argued about this issue are Mintzberge, Bennis and Nanus, Zaleknik and Yukl. The main leadership theories that this essay will focus on are contingency, traits and behavioral leadership.
For years, there have been many leadership ideas and theories which has been the source of intensive studies. The three major leadership ideas/theories that I have learned are the Behavioral Theory, the Contingency Theory, and the, Transactional Leadership Theory. The Behavioral theories of leadership focus on the behaviors of a leader. In this theory, a leader’s behavior is a gauge of their influences and as a result, is a good indicator of his or her leadership success. There are two important behavioral studies.
Through my experiences, I am able to determine which ones I identify with and those which are useless. As a leader, one must determine which theory they prescribe to and apply it within their organization. I feel that people are taught how to be leaders and are also leaders when put into certain circumstances that require in depth knowledge. Additionally, I feel that employees have a desire to succeed and are not inherently lazy but sometimes lack the guidance required from leadership. No one set of theories can be applied to a leader but these best fit the self-reflection of the leadership theories I believe
Literature review. There are different leadership theories, models and styles developed throughout the history. Cable & Judge (2003), acknowledged that, the theories, models and styles that leaders use to get things done in an organization have important consequences for the culture of the organization and how people in the organization relate to one another. It also matters the motivation and the development of the workforce. Leadership Theories.
com (2015) categorized various theories of leadership which have been the source of numerous studies by philosophers, researchers and professors. Table 1 presents the various theories of leadership, which include : The Great Man Theory, 1840; Trait Theory, 1930's-1940's; Behavioural Theories , 1940's-1950's; Contingency Theories, 1960's; Transactional Leadership, 1970's and Transformational Leadership, 1970's. The proponents, year, name of theory and description of the theory are described
There are a number of sub-theories that fall under the general contingency umbrella. Specific mention may be made of three such theories; Fielder’s contingency theory, situational leadership and Path- Goal theory. The Fielder contingency theory suggests that there must be a strong leader- member relationship. A leader must possess to able to give out specific tasks clearly to members with outlines of procedures and goals. As a successful leader they should also be able to hand out punishments and rewards to the members of their team.
The Trait theories, in any case, could not establish the traits that should be common to all leaders. Mahatma Gandhi, Subhas Chandra Bose and Jawaharlal Nehru were all extraordinary leaders however their identities had particularly unique qualities making them very different leaders in different ways. ("6 Leadership Theories to define Effectiveness of Leaders", 2017) Behavioural The Behavioural Theories sought to identify the specific behaviours of leaders that lead to their leadership success. Leaders may show task or people orientated practices and may settle on choices using authoritarian, democratic, or laissez-faire styles. It appeared the Behavioural Theories overlooked the situational factors and the environment in which behaviours are demonstrated.
The many leadership theories which exist today fall within eight categories. These are the great man theories, trait, contingency, situational, behavioral, participative, management and relationship theories respectively. In great man theories, leadership is presumed to be inherent, that is, leaders are born not made. Similarly, trait theories hold this ideology but based on the leadership qualities. Relative to contingency theories, the environmental factors determine the leadership style whereas on situational theories the situation dictates.
A. There is several different leadership theories and they are the Great man theory means that leaders are born not made (Worth, 2009). Trait theory is that you can be a born leader or you can be taught to be a leader (Worth, 2009). Behavioral theories talk about two different behaviors task, which relate to the work to be done and relationship actions that deal with the feeling of others (Worth, 2009). Contingency theory that there is no single way of leading and that every leadership style should be based on certain situations (Worth, 2009).