Experimental details Core washing In this experiment, the purpose was to clean the core samples taken from reservoirs and extract the residual hydrocarbons within the core sample. In first step, the samples were cut in a appropriate size in order to use them in other laboratory devices properly. This size is 1.5” in diameter. The next step is to wash the samples
Customarily, during production operations, emulsified water is present in crude oil as a result of the mixing encountered at numerous stages such as processing, transporting, drilling, and producing of crude oil. Nonetheless, the formation of emulsion leads problems in the oil field industry which may increase the cost of transportation as well as the production. At the same time, it might also accumulate in the refinery tank age, plugged pipeline, equipment failure, and pipeline corrosion. Intended for economic and operational reasons, before refining and transporting it is necessary to remove water completely from the crude oil emulsion. The emulsions have to be broken and demulsify in order to separate the water content of the produced crude
Typically problems only occur downstream due to blending or high heat. Crude oils with unstable asphaltenes suffer from some severe operational problems, most of which are fouling related and affect valves, chokes, filters, and tubing. Asphaltenes become unstable as the pressure of the well decreases and the volume fraction of aliphatic components increases. If the aliphatic fraction of the oil reaches a threshold limit then asphaltenes begin to flocculate and precipitate. This pressure is called the flocculation point.
To meet the food and beverage challenges, factories must use products that perform well in these complex environments. And cables, connectors and cable glands play an important role in the process of maintaining hygiene in the F&B industry. The product requirements are: • Chemical Resistant. Machine parts are likely to be corroded resulting from humid conditions often found in high pressure, chemical and steam cleaning areas. As most of the zones are cleaned frequently and thoroughly using strong cleaning agents such as corrosive agents, alkalis and dry ice, the materials used need to be suitable.
This is the most important stage because errors might occur and is time consuming. The selection of a particular procedure depend several factors like analytical technique to be employed, nature and the number of the samples to be analyzed, desired degree of precision and accuracy required availability of the equipment, materials and reagents and the cost of analysis. Metal determination in crude oil is carried out by using dry ashing, dilution in organic solvents or using micro-emulsions. Currently, the use of micro-wave assisted digestion gaining its popularity as a potential sample preparation technique due to high efficiency of heat transfer and sample digestion efficiency Figure 2.1: Methods used for the determination of metals and non-metals in crude oil 2.2 Sample decomposition by ashing Ashing of the crude oil to eliminate organic matter followed by
In this study we used GanodermaLucidum as mycoremediator based on related studies that were also concerned on treating oil spill. Synthetic oil spill was then analysed before and after the experiment. The physical and chemical properties of the contaminated water were determined by the institute and laboratory that conduct water analysis for oil spill. Results of analysis were compared. The water was the output of this study that was presented and interpreted for the completion of the
• Sugar refining is a high temperature, caustic process requiring tight pH control in every stage. Because the process is so physically demanding, in the past pH measurement is typically made in cooled samples lines (introducing significant lag time) or via grab samples (even longer lag time). During carbonation the pH must be high enough to remove lime in the form of calcium carbonate (limestone). But if the pH become too high in the first carbonation, then the calcium will actually complex with the sucrose and negatively affect yield. So good quality pH sensors are used.
The final products or intermediates from these industries are used as raw materials for a large number of manufacturing industries. These heavy industries are also major contributors to environmental pollution. These industries are characterized by the production of multiple outputs, some of which would be considered as "desirable good outputs"& others as “undesirable bad output”. The desirable Products which are derived from Petroleum and Chemical Industry are Liquefied Petroleum Gas, Gasoline, Naphtha, Kerosene, Diesel, Olefins and Aromatics, Paraffins, Sulphur & coke. The desirable products derived from Mining and Quarrying industry are aluminium, copper, iron, silver, gold, zinc, tin and lead.
PAHs are of environmental and health concern because a number of them have known mutagenic, genetoxic and carcinogenic properties as well as long range transportation capabilities. They tend to be associated with particles and are widely transported by flooding and atmospheric pathways, resulting in elevated concentrations in sediments and soils (Yang et al., 2006). PAHs in the environment originate from two main sources namely natural sources (which include forest fire and volcanic eruption) and anthropogenic sources (such as incomplete complete combustion of fossil fuel, coke production, oil spillage and may other industrial processes) (Yang et al., 2012). Anthropogenic sources are by far the greatest contributor to the global
The primary role is to give the strength, resistance and leak-proof properties of transport packaging. In addition, packaging must also reliably be able to withstand the many different static and dynamic forces to which it is subjected during transport, handling and storage operations. The goods frequently also require protection from climatic conditions, such as temperature, humidity, precipitation and solar radiation. The obvious protection provided by the packaging must prevent any environmental degradation by the products. This requirement is of high significance in the transport of hazardous materials, with protection of humans being of the main importance.