The phenol-red indicator helps to identify the bacteria. Upon viewing my results it was determined that my colonies did not ferment mannitol. This was easily observed because they remained translucent. The incubation times for all of the inoculated tests were for 48 hours (due to lab schedule, supposed to be 24 hours) and the temperature they were incubated at was at 37C. 37C is the optimal temperature to maintain the state of the agar as well as the ideal temperature for continued microbial growth to occur. My fourth and final test conducted to help identify my bacteria was an Oxidase test.
Materials and Methods To start with, the unknown bacteria # 710 broth had to be successfully isolated on an EMB and MAC agar plate. Using aseptic technique by sterilizing the wire loop with Bunsen Burner between inoculations and flaming the opening of the test tubes before inserting in the loop with the bacteria. The streaking technique used was to isolate the colonies on the agar plates. In addition, the streak plates had to be incubated in a upturned position for 24 hours in a hot temperature incubator at 37 degree Celsius. Bacteria need a favorable condition to grow in.
- Little to no oxygen will result in the E. coli cells producing large quantities of acetic acid, causing the growth medium to reach pH 4 or lower however, with proper aeration the cells will be able to use many organic acids as carbon sources and the pH of the growth medium will be maintained at neutral or basic ranges. Aeration is another important factor in determining E. coli cell growth however it can continue to grow in the absence of oxygen using fermentation and anaerobic respiration. - Optimal growth temperature is 37C, cannot grow well at temperatures higher than 42C and they can tolerate lower temperatures with lower growth rate. - The doubling time or generation time for most E. coli strain in a rich medium at 37C is 20 minutes.
Once those chemicals have been converted, the acidity in the mucous surrounding the bacteria then becomes neutral protecting the bacteria. Even with the immune system being strong, the bacterium does not get abolished due to Helicobacter Pylori creating components in the cell wall that are similar to molecules made in
In order to determine of his was an experimental error or a new form of bacteria, we swabbed this bacteria into four new cultures and retested them. The new bacteria had grown back normally. We determined that there could have been experimental error by not keeping the testing area completely sterile. Also, we determined that the E. Coli bacteria could have just grown with abundance in these particular cultures. In this case, it would been helpful to test more than two cultures for each
Mutant phages that cannot be recognized by the immune system can also be used. A combination of the two methods could even be used without harm to the effectiveness of the system. In the case of a phage turning against the immune system, a polyethylene glycol can be administered that reduces the immune response (Matsuzaki, par. 8). Current issues with phages are mostly based on issues that occurred in the past when little was known about the origin or abilities of the new bacteria.
It is necessary to understand what each test reveals about the unknown. Citrate tests are performed in order to distinguish between different enteric bacteria by seeing which can use citrate as the sole carbon source. MR/VP are tests that are used to distinguish between different types of fermentation either mixed acid or butanediol and test for the production of acetoin. H2S production is used to determine whether or not the bacteria can produce hydrogen sulfide. Mannitol high salt testing is done in order to determine if the bacteria is salt tolerant and can ferment mannitol.
Based on the assumed contamination of the TLC plate and or capillary tube, it is not possible to tell whether acetaminophen was successfully separated from the Excedrin powder. The Rf values of isolated aspirin and pure aspirin were the same. This demonstrates that the aspirin was successfully separated and is relatively pure. The isolated caffeine sample had a higher Rf value but when viewed under UV light, the markings of isolated caffeine were within the bounds of the pure caffeine, leading to the conclusion that while isolated the caffeine sample was note
However, when our bodies encounter unfamiliar antigens our immune system may not be able to fight off the antigen before infection occurs resulting in us becoming sick. This is where vaccines can be beneficial. They work by preparing the immune system for possible exposure to a virus by injecting a weakened or dead form of the virus into the bloodstream. Hence, infection does not occur as immunity is achieved and the immune system knows how to combat the foreign invader when exposed to a stronger form of the virus. As a result of vaccination, antibodies will be produced that attack the weakened virus without infection occurring as it would with natural infection.
My bacterium turned out to be gram positive. When conducting these tests, I only had to do the coagulase test and the catalase test because when doing the catalase test, the reaction was that it had bubbled. If it did not bubble, or have a positive reaction, then I would not have had to do the coagulase test. Also, since my bacterium caused a positive catalase test, I only had to do the coagulase test and no other tests. This is because with staphylococcus organisms, these are the only tests
Introduction: In the field of microbiology being able to identify a specific bacterial species is an important skill. In order to discover and being able to identify any microbial bacteria, there a list of test one must perform in order to come with the right microorganism. It is fundamental to be aware of the risk of toxify, the resistance to antibiotics and determining how to prevent its growth and being able to destroy this bacteria. By being able to run both physical and chemical test to determine the identity of the mystery microbe is a unique and useful skill in the field of medicine and microbiology.
Isoniazid ( isonicotinic acid hydrazide ,INH , is a pro- drug that requires mycobacterium tuberculosis catalase peroxidase enzyme to be active against mycobacterium and does not have any effect on mycobacteria before this enzyme activation. It is one of the most commonly used drugs in the treatment of tuberculosis, because mycobacterium tuberculosis show high sensitivity to it. However it should be noted that this drug is effective against growing basil and cannot eradicate the latent basil. Furthermore, its activity against mycobacterium is carried out under completely aerobic conditions and under anaerobic conditions does not have an inhibitory effect on mycobacterium tuberculosis. The main reason for this event is the need of oxygen for
n this lab, there were four objectives needed to be met. The first one was to perform a genetic transformation procedure, the second was to move genes from one organism to another using a plasmid as a vector, and the third was to manipulate tools of biotechnology. The bacteria E. coli was used to manipulate and transform. The E. coli would be tested for ampicillin resistance and a green fluorescent glow. One hypothesis made for this lab was that the bacteria that developed a resistance to ampicillin would reproduce even in the presence of the ampicillin.
Transformation in bacteria usually takes place when a bacterial cell accepts strange DNA and integrates to its own DNA. The transformation normally takes place within plasmids, which are tiny circular DNA molecules that have been separate from its own chromosome. The copies of the same plasmid range from 10 to 200 copies within a cell. These copies of plasmids may multiply when the chromosome replicate or multiply independently. One plasmid has a range of 1,000 to 200,000 base pairs.