Pharmaceutical Analysis Assignment

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Pharmaceutical analysis plays a vital role in quality assurance and also in quality control of bulk drugs and pharmaceutical formulations. It is a branch of analytical chemistry that includes separation, identification and determination of the relative amounts of components in the sample. The pharmaceutical analysis deals with the characterization of the sample qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Qualitative analysis reveals the chemical identity of the sample and quantitative analysis establish the respective amounts of components in the sample in numerical terms (Rappoport and Liebman, 2009; Paul et al., 2011). Fast increase in pharmaceutical industries and drug production in various parts of the world has leads…show more content…
In his paper ‘On a new category of adsorption phenomena and its application to biochemical analysis’ presented on 21st March, 1903 in frequent meeting of the biology section of the Warsaw Society of Natural Sciences, Tswett gave a very detailed report of the newly discovered phenomena of adsorption-based separation of composite mixtures, which he later called ‘chromatography’. The word chromatography is a translation from Greek which means “color writing” (Dondelinger, 2012). Coincidentally, the Russian word “tswett” means color. He discussed in all his publications that he observed a colorful image of his first separation of plant pigments shown in Figure 1.1, so he has given that name for his new method. At that time of discovery, the chromatographic method was not appreciated among the scientists, additionally after almost 10 years when C. Dhere in Europe and L. S. Palmer (Kazakevich & Lobrutto, 2007) in the United States individually published the description of a similar separation…show more content…
Kuhn and A. Winterstein) published a paper (Ettre & Sakodynskii, 1993) on purification of xanthophylls on CaCO3 adsorption column following the process described by Tswett. In the year 1941, partition chromatography was discovered by R. L. M. Synge and A. J. P. Martin at Cambridge University in the UK, (Martin & Synge, 1941) for that in 1952 they were awarded the Noble Prize. In 1952, Martin and Synge published a seminal paper (Martin, 1941) which, along with the paper of A.T. James and A. J. P. Martin (Martin & Synge, 1952), laid a foundation for the quick growth of chromatographic techniques that shortly followed. Prior to the 1970's, few good chromatographic methods were commercially obtainable to the laboratory scientist. During 1970's, most chemical separations were performed using different techniques including open-column chromatography, TLC (thin-layer chromatography) and paper chromatography. However, these chromatographic techniques were insufficient for resolution between similar compounds and quantification of compounds. During this time, to decrease flow through time pressure liquid chromatography began to be used, thus reducing purification and separation times of compounds being isolated by column chromatography. As flow rates were Inconsistent, the question if it was good to have a constant flow rate or constant

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