Botulinum Toxin Therapy Botulinum toxin is produced by anerobic bacillus Colstidium botulinum, is a potent neurotoxin. That is inhibits the presynaptic release of acetylcholine and binds to acetylcholine receptors at the postsynaptic membrane. (122 B) There are seven distinct serotypes of Botulinum toxin : A, B, C1, D, E, F, and G. Only Botulinum toxins type A and B are commercially available. Four types of botulinum toxin are approved by FDA for clinical use in the USA. 1.
D., Plewa, M. J., Wagner, E. D., Schoeny, R., & DeMarini, D. M. (2007). Occurrence, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of regulated and emerging disinfection by-products in drinking water: a review and roadmap for research. Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research, 636(1), 178-242. Richardson, S. D. (2003). Disinfection by-products and other emerging contaminants in drinking water.
Explain: Causality or relatedness assessment determines whether there is a “reasonable possibility” that the product is causally related to the adverse event. (1) In practice, FDA (21CFR32) is using the term “suspected adverse drug reaction” (SADR), to emphasize the suspicion that the drug is a possible cause of the adverse event. Suspected Adverse Drug reaction (SADR) implies a lesser degree of certainty about causality than the term Adverse Reaction. (2) The European Union ENTR/ CT3 clarified that all adverse events assessed by the investigator or the sponsor and imply having a reasonable evidence for a causal relationship to an investigational medicinal product qualify as adverse reactions. (2) In practice, many companies have two types
Chapter 2 2. Literature Review Root causes analysis is simply a tool designed to help incident investigators describe what happened during a particular incident, to determine how it happened and to understand why it happened. The definition of a root cause varies between authors and root causes methodologies, with different ‘levels’ of causation being adopted by different systems. Figure 1 illustrates the different levels of cause that can be ascribed to an incident. The root causes lie at level 1 which inevitably influence the effectiveness of all the risk control systems and workplace precautions that exist at levels 2 and 3.
Evaluating validity to examine the effectiveness in and throughout the process. This process involves the factuality of information, project design, data applications, data, model and the results from an event or occurrence. Accountability will include checks and balance, performance evaluations, assessment and customer satisfaction. Measurement tools will then be considered in the light of the industry’s exclusive realities and considerations. Over time, accountability impact and cost must be evaluated.
• Administration errors • Transcription errors • Failure to follow proper medical guidelines ( double checking the right drug, doses, routing, time and patient Epinephrine is a catecholamine that stimulates alpha (α) , beta 1 (β-1) and beta 2 (β-2)adrenergic effector dose dependent. Epinephrine influences its effects on the heart, vascular and other smooth muscles. It’s usually administrated for both anaphylaxis and myocardial infarction. Epinephrine is available in different concentrations and it is administered in a variable type of specific to each indication. Doses for Epinephrine Base on Indication: Indication Dose Administration Anaphylactic 0.3-0.5mg of 1:1,000 Intramuscular (IM) Anaphylactic 0.1mg of 1:10,000 IV push over 5 minutes shock Myocardial 1mg of 1:10,000 IV push Infarction concentration What could’ve been done by the medical team to prevent these errors?
Introduction The purpose of this experiment was to purify acetanilide that was contaminated with relatively small amounts of impurities using recrystallization. The success of recrystallization was dependent on a suitable solvent being chosen and proper recrystallization technique being carried out. The solvent chosen had to have a different polarity than that of the molecule of interest. The technique used was dependent on the solubility of the solvent at higher temperature and the solubility of the impurities at all temperatures. To analyze the acetanilide product of the reaction, 1H NMR and IR were used.
According to the Texas A&M International Univ Biology Lab Manual, acetone, otherwise known as C3H6O, is an organic solvent that has the capacity of damaging and stressing hydrophobic specimen, (ChemSpider). The beet cell, for instance, contains phospholipids, which contains hydrophobic specimen (specimen resistant to water)(Carroll, Melanie). Knowing all this before the experiment gave a sense of direction on which way to formulate a hypothesis. The hypothesis on this experiment was that out of the various concentrations of acetone that we used, (5%,15%,30%), the 30% acetone would cause the most stress/damage to the healthy beet tissue. To further explain how the concentration of acetone differs by parentage, I will explain how much g/l are contained with different percentages.
Antibiotics tested included: gentamicin, teicoplanin, rifampicin, doxycycline, quinupristin/dalfopristin, cefoxitin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, linezolid and mupirocin. 2.3.2. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by Etest Isolates resistant to cefoxitin were submitted to the Etest () to determine the sensitivity to vancomycin. S. aureus ATCC 29213 was used as the quality control in each set of tests. Isolates showing inhibition zones of 30 μg cefoxitin (Oxoid, Cambridge, UK) disk, and that were positive for mecA gene by PCR, were characterized as MRSA.
A similar definition exists in the text “Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations” (Orange Book) published by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (3). While both the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) and the FDA recognize the concept that pharmaceutical alternatives may be shown to be bioequivalent, the Orange Book (3) clearly states that only therapeutic equivalents that are pharmaceutical equivalents can be considered substitutable, whereas the EMEA states that either pharmaceutical equivalents or pharmaceutical alternatives may be considered as therapeutic equivalents provided that the excipients contained in the formulation do not impact on the safety and efficacy profile of the dosage form (2). Pharmaceutical equivalents are defined in the Orange Book (3) as drug products that contain the same active ingredient(s), are of the same dosage form, route of administration and are identical in strength or