The three trials reacted 27.95 mL, 26.61 mL, and 25.74 mL of potassium permanganate to determine 55.7%, 53.0%, and 51.3% respectively of oxalate in the compound with a 53.3% average. To calculate the empirical formula of the compound, the percent composition of the each piece of the compound needed to be found. A thermogravimetric analysis performed outside the lab determined 11.0% of the compound was water and an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy found 11.3% was iron. Potassium accounted for the remaining 24.4% of the compound. The compound’s empirical formula was determined to be FeK3(C2O4)3•3H2O.
The reaction mixture contained 100 µl of each of the extract solution in separate tubes (1 mg/ml) to which was added 0.5 ml of Folin-Ciocalteu phenol reagent, 1.5 ml of 20% (w/v) sodium carbonate and 10 ml of distilled water. After 2h of reaction at ambient temperature, the absorbance was measured at 765 nm and used to calculate the phenolic contents, using gallic acid as a standard. All experiments were performed thrice and the results were averaged and reported in the form of mean ± S.D.Then the total phenolic contents were expressed in term of gallic acid equivalents (mg GAE/g dry extract)
The mixture was finally made upto 5 mL with distilled water and placed in hot water bath at 95ºC for 1 h. After cooling, 1 mL of distilled water and 5 mL of the mixture of n-butanol and pyridine (15:1, v/v) was added. The mixture was vortexed and after centrifugation at 4000 rpm for 10 minutes, the absorbance of the organic layer (upper layer) was measured in UV-Vis spectrophotometer (Shimatzu) at 532 nm against blank using distilled water. TBA when allowed to react with MDA aerobically formed a colored complex [MDA-(TBA) 2 complex] which was measured with spectrophotometer. MDA concentration (measured as TBARS) was calculated as
The mixture was heated at 110 ºC and for 7 h. The mixture was washed with the water and was dried by using anhydrous sodium sulphate . Synthesis of oleyl 9,(12)-oleoyloxy-10,(13)-oleioxyoctadecanoate (OLOLOODT) (5) OLHYOODT 4 (2.5g; 0.003 mol), pyridine (1.66 g; 0.002 mol) and CCl4 (10 mL) were mixed and heated at 60 °C. OLC (16.2 g; 0.013 mol) was adding during 1 h, and the reaction mixture was refluxed for (5.5 h). The mixture was washed with the water and was dried by using anhydrous sodium sulphate . Characterization FTIR and 1H and 13C NMR FTIR of the products was recorded on a Perkin Elmer Spectrum GX spectrophotometer in the range 400-4000 cm-1.
3. Phytochemical Screening and Preliminary Screening for Flavonoids 3.1 Alkaloidal analysis (Preliminary Test) About 20 grams of the sample from the extract were placed in the evaporating dish. It was evaporated over steam bath until syrupy consistency is formed. 5 mL of 2M HCl was added, heated and stirred for about 5 minutes in a water bath and allowed it to cool. 0.5 grams of NaCl was added, stirred and filtered.
H and S were diluted 20x and P1 and P2 were diluted 2x to make up a total volume of 1ml each. 50ul of each diluted sample was pipetted into 8 wells of the microplate and 50ul of each protein standard was pipetted into 2 wells. 50ul were incubated with 50ul of alkaline copper reagent. 50ul of alkaline copper reagent was added to every well containing water, buffer, sample or standard and was incubated for 30 minutes. 100ul of Folin reagent was added to the wells and incubated for another 20 minutes.
Higuchi model94,95 [Q = KH t½] 4. Korsmeyers-Peppas model:96,97 F = (Mt/M) = Km tn 6.4.7. Drug content: The drug content from pellet formulations was investigated; in which the quantity of pellets equivalent to 6.25 mg of dose of zolpidem tartarate was weighed and dissolved in 0.01 N HCl, sonicated for 15 minutes to dissolve it completely and then the solution of 14 ppm was prepared which was considered as a working level for the complete analysis. The absorbance was determined at the 294.5nm by UV spectrophotometer. Then the drug content was determined by comparing the absorbance of this solution with standard solution having same concentration.
Masirkar(2008) reported that its roots contain anti-diabetic activity against alloxan induced diabetes in albino rats. A special feature of higher angiospermic plants is their capacity to produce a large number of organic chemicals of high structural diversity. The so-called secondary metabolites (Evans et al., 1986), which are divided into different categories based on their mechanism of function like chemotherapeutic, bacteriostatic, bactericidal and antimicrobial (Purohit and Mathur, 1999). The accumulation of phytochemicals in the plant cell cultures had been studied for more than thirty years and the generated knowledge had helped in realization of using cell cultures for production of desired phytochemicals (Castello et al., 2002). Healthy environment are a major problem in the developing countries because everyday has born new microbial infection defeat people.
The plant kingdom has served as an inexhaustible source of foods, useful drugs, additives, flavouring agents, lubricants, colouring agents, gums etc from times immemorial (Parikh et al., 2005). The therapeutic power of herbs had been recognized since prehistoric age of the earth, mankind and herbal medicine is one of the oldest practiced professions (Kambizi and Afolayan, 2001). Medicinal plants form the indigenous knowledge/technology and have been passed on to us over centuries and represent a rich source of antimicrobial agents with global importance. It is estimated that around 70,000 plant species, from lichens to tall trees, have been used as raw material for some potent and powerful drugs, although synthetic drugs and antibiotics brought
They act as free radical terminators, metals chelators and single oxygen quenchers as they are multifunction. Topopherols, flavonoids and phenolic acid are the common plant phenolic antioxidants. Antioxidants react as unfastened radical scavengers by using defensive the cellular from harm by