The hyphenation that Heidegger utilizes in the term ‘being-in-the-world’ is intentional – it is used to indicate that this “compound expression… stands for a unitary phenomenon” (78). It would be a mistake to consider “being-in-the-world” as the composite of two separate characteristics – that of “being in” and of “the world.” Therefore, in analyzing ‘being-in-the-world,’ which solely characterizes Dasein, it is important that we understand this term as a singular “datum” to be interpreted as a whole (78). However, kept in its unitary form, it may be unclear as to how “being-in-the-world” can characterize Dasein but not entities like chairs. Therefore, it is necessary to dissect the components of the unitary phenomena of “being-in-the-world” into its “constitutive items” – that is, “being-in” and ‘the world”
The model offers causal explanations as well as simply describing personality traits (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Cattell and Eysenck arrived at two very different, but not irreconcilable theories of personality. The two theorists used factor analysis very differently, but actually their conceptualisations are not fundamentally different. Eysenck 's extraversion-introversion supertrait is highly similar to Cattell 's exvia-invia, and neuroticism is very similar to anxiety. Eysenck preferred to work with a broad three dimensional picture, whereas Cattell believed that working with a larger number of traits, a more accurate perception of personality is obtained (Hampson, 1988).
HOLISM Generally holism in terms of an idea is opposed to atomism. Atomists tend to base their thinking that any whole can be disintegrated into its separate parts and the relationships between them. The holists argue that the whole is primary and often greater than the sum of its parts. Atomist put things separately in order to know them better or other words for better understanding of these things.
Perception is the organisation, identification and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment. Like perception, logic plays a role in critical thinking. Critical thinking is the process in which one mentally explores deeper than the superficial matters at hand into the deeper layers in order to find out what the real issues are. However, when it comes to weighing their beneficial impact on the critical thinking process, logic and perception are by no means equal. While logic is firmly rooted in reason, perceptions are just as firmly rooted in one’s senses and can easily be corrupted.
The theory of reasoned action planned behavior (TPB)was developed by (Ajzen ,2001,1991,1989) and is seen as an exten¬sion of the theory of reasoned action holds that the intention (motiva¬tion) to perform a certain behavior is dependent on whether individuals evaluate the behavior as positive (attitude) and if they judge others as wanting them to perform the behavior (subjective norm). TPB builds on this theory and holds that all behavior is not exe¬cuted under purposeful control and that behaviors lie on a continuum from total control to complete lack of control. Both internal factors (cognitive skills, knowl¬edge, emotions) and external factors (situations or environment) determine the degree of control. TPB is based on the connection between attitudes and behaviors. Behavior is based on and guided by three kinds of beliefs and cognitive
Some philosophers and cultural studies researchers have queried the assumption that identity is a fixed `item ' that we possess. Identity, it is argued, is not best considered as an entity but as an emotionally charged (mostly unbeknown) description of ourselves. Instead of being a timeless essence, what it is qualified as a person is said to be plastic and changeable being specific to particular social and cultural conjunctures. Notably, subjectivity and identity mark the composition of persons in culture and language.
Furthermore, Cloninger (2008) also tells that ego is working as the major conscious centre to resolve the issues arise from both the impulsive urge of id and the moral restriction from the superego. In a simple way, ego is the information centre of the mind that carries out duties to maintain a harmonious balance between id and superego: first to receive knowledge from internal and external environments, second is to reserve the information either in consciously or unconsciously way and third is to process the information and carry out the decision making to decide a response or a reaction based on the need of id and superego (Goldwater,
Drive is a pooled energy source. This was examined by varying two needs simultaneously and showing that they both activated the same response. While Hull 's theory was popular during the middle part of the 20th-century, it began to fall out of favor due to a number of reasons. Because of his emphasis on quantifying his variables in such a narrowly defined way, his theory lacks generalizability.
The concept of the theory of projection is that we project our qualities to others in order to understand ourselves. In “Independence and dependence of Self-Consciousness: Lordship and Bondage”, Hegel presented the process of self-consciousness, that we become self-conscious when encounter another self-consciousness. It comes from outside and achieved only by being acknowledged or recognized. Yet, it can see otherness as a threat to itself that both may enter life-and-death struggle to prove themselves and each other (Hegel,
Cognitive behavioural therapy suggests that the ability to change a behaviour is a short term process, whereas Psychodynamic therapy sees change as a long term process, A key difference in these two approaches is that, CBT aim is to change and Cognitive behavioural therapies aim is Insight and awareness (Gabbard, 2004; Wills, 2008). CBT suggests that the focus should lie in changing behaviour rather than emotions (Wills 2008). It could be suggested that a major difference could be explained by the degree of emphasis used in exploring the past to uncover the origins of any maladaptive thinking and behaviour patterns. It could be suggested that it may be useful to include this in CBT in order for the client not to relate to one 's problems as
Nagel contributes to the mind-body dualism by posing challenges to faulty reductive theories by discussing the importance of the consideration of subjectivity. He is entitled to the assumptions he makes because reductionism overlooks the gap between the subjective and the objective. Further exploring such gap can signify the creation of new methods that invoke the objective as well as the subjective. As of now the call for innovative approaches to understand the consciousness are essential to better understand our species and others
Corinne Kamrar fMRI 204566178 Whether or not neuroimaging, more specifically functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), informs cognitive theories is investigated through two opposing views. Max Coltheart argues, cognitive neuroimaging lacks the ability to inform cognitive theory and therefore does not contribute to the study of cognition. In other words, cognitive theory informs neuroimaging and not the other way around, such that, neuroimaging informs cognitive theory. Contradicting Coltheart’s view on cognitive neuroimaging, Mara Mather, John Cacicppo, and Nancy Kanwisher agree that an abundance of knowledge can be obtained from fMRI’s and therefore influence cognitive theories.