Phhonological Analysis: Levels Of Natural Language Processing

1945 Words8 Pages
Chapter 1: Introduction Natural Language Processing Natural Language Processing (NLP) is the computerized approach to analyzing text that is based on both a set of theories and a set of technologies. And, being a very active area of research and development, there is not a single agreed-upon definition that would satisfy everyone, but there are some aspects, which would be part of any knowledgeable person’s definition. Several elements of this definition can be further detailed. Firstly the imprecise notion of ‘range of computational techniques’ is necessary because there are multiple methods or techniques from which to choose to accomplish a particular type of language analysis. ‘Naturally occurring texts’ can be of any language, mode, genre,…show more content…
Of necessity, the following description of levels will be presented sequentially. The key point here is that meaning is conveyed by each and every level of language and that since humans have been shown to use all levels of language to gain understanding, the more capable an NLP system is, the more levels of language it will utilize. Phonology This level deals with the interpretation of speech sounds within and across words. There are, in fact, three types of rules used in phonological analysis: 1) phonetic rules – for sounds within words; 2) phonemic rules – for variations of pronunciation when words are spoken together, and; 3) prosodic rules – for fluctuation in stress and intonation across a sentence. Morphology This level deals with the componential nature of words, which are composed of morphemes – the smallest units of meaning. For example, the word preregistration can be morphologically analyzed into three separate morphemes: the prefix pre, the root registra, and the suffix…show more content…
This requires both a grammar and a parser. The output of this level of processing is a (possibly delinearized) representation of the sentence that reveals the structural dependency relationships between the words Semantic This is the level at which most people think meaning is determined, however, as we can see in the above defining of the levels, it is all the levels that contribute to meaning. Semantic processing determines the possible meanings of a sentence by focusing on the interactions among word-level meanings in the sentence. Discourse While syntax and semantics work with sentence-length units, the discourse level of NLP works with units of text longer than a sentence. That is, it does not interpret multisentence texts as just concatenated sentences, each of which can be interpreted singly. Pragmatic This level is concerned with the purposeful use of language in situations and utilizes context over and above the contents of the text for understanding The goal is to explain how extra meaning is read into texts without actually being encoded in them Approaches to

More about Phhonological Analysis: Levels Of Natural Language Processing

Open Document