Phonological knowledge refers to knowledge about sound and symbol relations in a language. A phoneme is the smallest linguistic unit of a sound. This is combined with other phonemes to form words. A phoneme consist of sounds that are considered to be a single perceptual unit by a listener for example you would say B is for ball. Phonic instruction involves teaching the relationship between sounds and the letters used to represent them.
In alphabetic languages such as English, individual spoken sounds are represented by individual letters or groups of letters. For reading and spelling, a young child should learn the complex rules by which these letters and sounds relate to each other. In languages with non-alphabetic orthography such as Chinese, There is no need to break words down into individual phonemes. Phonological impairments can cause greater difficulty in alphabetic languages than in logographic languages (Brunswick, 2009: 48). Several studies have shown that phonological awareness is essential in literacy and development of skills in reading and writing.
(3) Phonological encoding is the process in which children learn how to access and apply the thousands of words that are previously present in their spoken lexicon. It is very important because it is an absolutely necessary condition for an effective reading acquisition. In order phonological encoding to be successful, children need to find combined grain sizes in orthography and phonology of their language that permits a strong connection between the two fields. 2. Define the three problems the authors claim beginning readers face.
Typological language is characterized by inflection, word formation and syntax. Consequently, the typology studied languages in terms of their grammatical forms. Different languages of the world, on the one hand, the diversity of its forms, and on the other - there were similarities, both in public functions and in the structure of sentences, plant and parts of speech. The most diverse means of building units of language, especially word forms and shapes phrases. We consider two main types of language: analytical and synthetic.
Of necessity, the following description of levels will be presented sequentially. The key point here is that meaning is conveyed by each and every level of language and that since humans have been shown to use all levels of language to gain understanding, the more capable an NLP system is, the more levels of language it will utilize. Phonology This level deals with the interpretation of speech sounds within and across words. There are, in fact, three types of rules used in phonological analysis: 1) phonetic rules – for sounds within words; 2) phonemic rules – for variations of pronunciation when words are spoken together, and; 3) prosodic rules – for fluctuation in stress and intonation across a sentence. Morphology This level deals with the componential nature of words, which are composed of morphemes – the smallest units of meaning.
Phonics One of the urgent requirements in the field of Education in Learning Disability is introduction of language development and phonics as a mandatory part of pre- and primary school curriculum. Phonics is relationship between sound of our language and written symbols. An alphabetical principle is, acquiring the knowledge that letters of the alphabet represent sound and written words are formed by putting together these sounds. The instruction of phonics is like breaking the code of unknown words. Phonics instructions have to be systematic and explicit.
The information carried by phraseological units is carefully organized and is exceptionally complicated. It is to be characterized by: 1) multilevel structure; 2) structure of a field (nucleus + periphery); 3) block-schema. It has 3 macro-components which relate to a particular type of information they carry: • the grammatical block; • the phraseological meaning proper; • motivational macro-component (phraseological imagery; the inner form of the phraseological unit; motivation). Phraseological unit is a non-motivated word-group that cannot be freely made up in speech but is used as a ready-made unit. Idiomaticity is the quality of phraseological unit, when the meaning of the whole is not deducible from the the meanings of the parts.
What is phonotactics? Phonotactics is a branch of phonology of a language that works with limits in a language on the permissible combinations of phonemes. This branch allows us to know the sequence of sounds. Phonotactics produces a limit in the possible sound sequences and syllable structures in a language, phonotactics defines the structure of the syllables and consonant clusters which are allowed, also tries to define the sequences of vowels through phonotactics restrictions What studies phonotactics? Phonotactics studies what sounds can be preceded and followed by another sounds, this is a factor that can to affect in the acquisition of the vocabulary in the second language.
INTRODUCTION Language is a set of arbitrary symbols used by group of people for the purpose of communication. Human beings communicate to share ideas, feelings, desires, emotions and for sheer pleasure. Bernard & George (1942) stated language as a system of arbitrary vocal symbols by means of which a social group cooperates. Phonology, Morphology, Syntax, Semantics and Pragmatics are the varied components of language. These components can be classified as form of language (phonology, morphology, and syntax), the content of language (semantics), and the function of language in communication (pragmatics).