In 1829 David Walker wrote the Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World. Walker pleas for the immediate abolishment of captivity and the same rights for Black people. This was a ground-breaking thing for a Black man to say openly at that time. It was also very risky. Because of what he was doing, Walker put his life in danger.
The white man’s happiness cannot be purchased by the black man’s misery.” Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey, or better known as Frederick Douglass, was an African-American who supported the abolition of slavery in the nineteenth century. Slave-born of an unknown father, Frederick Douglass taught himself how to write and read- even though it was a crime for black people to learn- and became one of the most eloquent orator, and writer during the nineteenth century. With his great passion of wanting to demolish slavery, he gained thousands and thousands of black people, and even white people, who supported him in the abolition of slavery. His antislavery not only reached the United States, but even Great Britain.
Although the concept of abolition was introduced, action wouldn’t be taken until almost a century later in 1865 with the ratification of the 13th Amendment. During that century slaves had various forms of revolt/ rebellion within the system they were in; this ranged from the simplest action of learning how to read to the most radical of violent uproars. Various free African American activists were vital in bringing awareness to their cause to white America. For example, Frederick Douglass’ work “ levied a powerful indictment against slavery and racism, provided an indomitable voice of hope for his people, embraced antislavery politics and preached his own brand of American ideals” (“Frederick Douglass”). This can be seen in his “What, to the Slave, is the Fourth of July?”
Booker T. Washington was the most influential representative for black Americans between 1895 and 1915. During the time that the white and the black were rivals, he gave a speech before the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta. In his speech The Atlanta Exposition Address, not only does he awake the black Americans to get involved into the industrialization, but he also asks for more working opportunities from the white. To reinforce his argument that the two races to cooperate together to push the South to prosperity, Washington employs multiple stylistic elements including parallel structures, peaceful diction and metaphor.
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was a social activist and a widely known leader during the civil rights movement in the 1960s. He is most famous for his iconic I Have a Dream speech which was given on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. on August 28, 1963. Dr. King expressed the many ways that African Americans have experienced racial discrimination and afterwards, ends his speech talking about his dream of equality with all races. One of the themes that has the greatest impact on everyone is justice. A quote that shows what he envisioned for all was, “Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood; now is the time to make justice a reality for all God’s children.”
Focusing specifically on the opposition of racial segregation, The Civil Rights movement symbolized the need for change across America. Between the years of 1950 and 1960, events such as; the March on Washington, the Montgomery Bus Boycott, speeches, protests, and sit-ins, directly defined such opposition. Due to such events, two outstanding leaders of their time, Martin Luther King Jr., and Malcolm X emerged into the public eye and began to impact the Civil Rights movement. At a turning point of the century, the two men took charge and became icons across the world while resonating significantly with African American minorities. With such in mind, the two men had extreme differences in their morals, ideals, and religions; however, both deemed
Black Power Huey Newton, cofounder of the Black Panthers, once said, “Black Power is giving power to people who have not had power to determine their destiny.” Due to the mistreatment of African Americans a speech was given and a phrase was coined that raised awareness of the struggles of the Civil Rights Movement. Stokely Carmichael was one of many who were leaders in the Civil Rights Movement. In fact, Stokely Carmichael was chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC).
The Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. Martin Luther King was a very established civil rights leader who not only stood up for the equality of blacks, but also for the issues of poverty throughout our country during the mid 1900s. Throughout this paper I will be summarizing and comparing the differences between two articles on Martin Luther King. These articles were originally published in historical journals. The articles I will be using include “The Death of Martin Luther King” by Richard Cavendish and “”Now that He is Safely Dead”:
The film At the River I Stand was a very interesting film that went back to the civil rights movement and told the dream that Martin Luther King had and how his dream has come a long way. This film took place in 1968 in Memphis, TN. It focused on how African Americans were excluded out and were paid low wages and worked in poor working conditions. Not only did they go on strike to gain equality, but they also wanted to stand up for what’s right. Being though Martin Luther King was assassinated during this film, African Americans started more riots all over the country to fight for justice.
President Lyndon B. Johnson once used the phrase, “we shall overcome”, in response to a violent racial uproar in Salma Alabama. This deadly uproar was in response to the African American struggle for equal rights in the 1960s. I found Johnson’s speech to be one of great significance because it is a declaration that still pertains to America, today. Johnson’s request of the American people to come together, and stand for our neighbors when freedom is denied to them, is a request that still holds true today. While we have come a long way since the violent racial discrimination of the 1960s, it is still in existence today, and many are still denied freedom.
James Harvey criticises Johnson’s attempt to deal with black unemployment. He does this by discussing the impact of the high profile appointments of Black Americans. Harvey believes that Johnson had used this to showcase the work he was doing for the movement. This can be seen as Johnson had appointed ‘revolving door’ negroes - who were deemed as ‘Uncle Toms’ or not seen as a threat to the body politics - to powerless roles, but ensured that they were highly visible at all times. This is exemplified by the appointment of Thurgood Marshall as first black Supreme Court judge in 1967.
Among African Americans, a new militancy prevailed during the war. Pointing to parallels between anti-Semitism in Germany and racial discrimination in the United States, black leaders waged the Double V campaign: calling for victory over Nazism abroad and racism at home. Even before the attack on Pearl Harbor, black labor activism was on the rise. In 1940, only 240 of the nation 's 100,000 aircraft workers were black, and most of them were janitors. African American leaders called for the government to require defense contractors to hire more black workers.
In 1909, the NAACP started its legacy of fighting legal battles to win social justice for African-Americans. The most significant of these battles were won under the leadership of Charles Hamilton Houston and his student, Thurgood Marshall. Nathan Margold found that, the facilities provided for blacks were always separate, but never equal to the facilities provided for whites, violating Plessy’s “separate but equal” principle. Thurgood Marshall continued the Association’s legal campaign, and during the mid-1940s, in Smith v. Allwright, Marshall successfully challenged the “white primaries,” which prevented African Americans from casting a vote in several southern states. In 1946 Thurgood Marshall also won a case in which the Supreme Court ended
In America in 1968, the civil rights movement was at its very height. For years, African Americans had struggled to get equal rights as Americans and with the civil rights movement and activist trying to make a change by protesting and rioting to end the racial segregation. At the time, several segregation was put in place to divide the people of colour and white Americans. The Jim Crows Law a state and local law put in place in 1890 by the government in southern states; this law had a huge disadvantage to the African Americans as it had impact to their education and how they were treated in society.