Indonesia’s Democracy in Suharto’s Era The word democracy comes from the words “demos” which means republic or citizen, and “kratos” which means “authority”. Democracy in general, means “government or rule by the people”. However, the democracy in Indonesia differs from other countries; Indonesia’s democracy is called Pancasila Democracy (Mengenal Sistem Demokrasi Indonesia). Pancasila Democracy is based on the five principles of national ideology, which are belief in one supreme God, justice and civility among peoples, unity of Indonesia, democracy through deliberation and consensus among representatives, and social justice for all the people of Indonesia (Soekarno’s Old Order). It is a constitutional democracy which prioritizes consensus and the authority of their citizens (Mengenal Sistem Demokrasi Indonesia).
“I am astonished to see how markedly our world is changing. A new world is being created, the old world destroyed. The very jungle becomes a settled district…” This impression of early colonial Singapore was written in the autobiography of Abdullah bin Kadir, who was regarded as a perceptive observer of the life in his day. The change from being “the very jungle” to “a settled district” best describes the development of Singapore in the early colonial time. After long being the “sleepy fishing villages” since the late seventeenth century, Singapore “woke up” and rapidly developed into one of Asia’s greatest port cities after the British arrived on the scene.
Democracy is a form of governance in which the supreme powers are vested in the hands of people and is exercised by them indirectly or directly through a system of representation usually involving periodic fair elections (http://www.zesn.org.zw/publications/publication_280.pdf). Most importantly, the rule of is needed to ensure that governors are held accountable through elections that are free and fair (Rose, R 2009) Democracy really means nothing or less than the rule of people,
The Philippines is a group of islands, just off the coast of Southeast Asia. Everything about the country changed when the Spanish first landed at their ports and took control of them. Centuries after, the Americans followed in their footsteps. Each of these new people brought war, death, oppression, and destruction to the moderately calm and isolated islands. A large issue for the Filipinos was that the newcomers arrived at different times, but were also in the Philippines together for a period of time as well.
That is why education in Indonesia teaches its people to unite despite the various differences. The simplest example is the subject of Civic Education or PKN that carries the purpose of Indonesian unity. The next precept is Democracy, led by the wisdom wisdom in deliberations of representation. The fourth precedence is defined as all policies established by the government must be in accordance with the agreement of the people and the needs of the people, in terms of education, namely the 9-year compulsory education, and the curriculum in Indonesian education. The government must have formulated it wisely and in accordance with the needs of the community.
He also stated the “guns, goons and gold” (407) phrase that accurately illustrates elite democracy in the Philippines. Also the same idea was laid by Anderson (1988) in providing description for Philippine politics which he called the cacique democracy. He stated that land-owning elites use their resources and hire private armies to sustain power and achieve political aims. Given these frameworks, one thing that binds them is the focus on the elite-driven nature of Philippine politics. Hence, what this proposal aims is to contribute on the literature of Philippine politics by looking at the voters as the primary factor of analysis.
He would want the Philippines to have its own government but will still be under the supervision of Spain. Rizal, unlike the two, viewed the precolonial Philippines as already civilized but had only started that civilization later then the others and is still progressing. It was still trying to build the foundation of its civilization when the Spaniards came. Under the rule of
What is the concept of democracy? The literal meaning of democracy is ‘government from the people and by the people’. The basic concept of democracy is to create a system or a set of conditions that will allow individuals to reach their highest level of individual well-being, however these individuals must not infringe upon anyone else’s rights and follow the judicial law. In South Africa we have a constitution that protects individuals and their rights. Democracy for the purpose of public administration There are five Principals of democracy for the purpose of public administration 1.
FORGING A SOUTHEAST ASIAN COMMUNITY: A Look Back at the History and Early Years of ASEAN The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was born during one of the adverse periods in the region’s history. It was conceived amidst diverse rifts among its founding members. Prior to this period, Southeast Asian countries were emerging from centuries of colonial domination after World War II and the resulting Cold War antagonisms. The advent of colonization hindered contact among different peoples of the region. Such that, when Southeast Asia freed itself from foreign domination, its peoples emerged estranged from one another.
The purpose of the government is to serve the people that are within their jurisdiction and to provide services adequate to their everyday needs and to further enhance their status quo in the community. That is why the local government unit has been created by the national government so that they may cater the people who have less in life. Through this way, the barangay serves as the basic unit of government here in the Philippines. A barangay form of government system here in the Philippines dated back way before the Spaniards conquered and reign over the country for over a length of time. From then, the barangay were once ruled by a Datu that is elected by the elders and that being a Datu is a sign of having royal blood.