The type of coping styles are based on Karen Horney’s theory of coping styles. Within this theory, there are 3 types of coping styles which include Moving Toward, Against and Away. The moving toward coping style can be defined as someone who copes by pleasing people and receiving approval which decreases the threat of rejection and criticism. In this coping style, the individual would try to accommodate individuals to avoid conflict and disagreement even if it means that they lose their voice or “sense of self”. Moving against coping style can be defined as taking control, being aggressive and being dominant in the relationships around them.
It proposes that adaptive coping comprises of confrontation-avoidance of loss and restoration stressors (Stroebe & Schut, 1999). Loss
Second, those in which a person attempts to change the situation where caused the stress and the last are those that just seek to avoid the problem. These are respectively called emotion-focused coping, problem-focused coping, and avoidance. Problem-focused coping aims the causes of stress in realistic strategies which settles the problem or stressful situation that is causing stress, consequently directed to reduce the stress (McLeod, Stress Management,
The Transactional Theory of Stress and Coping was developed by American psychologist Richard S. Lazarus. It is used to analyze the complex processes individuals undergo in coping with stressful life experiences. The core assumption of this theory is that coping is a process wherein adaptational outcomes are determined by how individuals appraise stressful experiences, the coping styles that are employed by the individual, and how dispositional and situational factors serve as mediating variables (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984; Lazarus, 1999). In early traditional approaches, studies have primarily focused on examining the causal relationship between stress and coping. For example, animal experimentations conceptualized stress as a physiological drive that is triggered by negative environmental stimuli.
Groups use two different coping processes to filter environmental stimuli, which are called the stabilizer and the innovator. The stabilizer coping process facilitates accomplishment of the purpose for which the group was formed, through use of the group’s structure, values, and usual activities. The innovator coping process focuses on the mechanisms by which the group changes and
According to (Krohne, 2002) who classified coping as a theory and grouped it into diverse categories relying on two diversified methods, either trait vs. state oriented technique or microanalytic vs. macroanalytic approach, has defined coping as “the cognitive and behavioral efforts made to master, tolerate, or reduce external and internal demands and conflicts among them.” On the other hand, (Folkman & Lazarous, 1984) integrated the definition of coping for both animals and humans as a progressive growth that causes a reduction in the reactions of animals as well as in human trial. While all these researchers have defined the concept of coping relying on different perspectives, (Pearlin & Schooler, 2016) have structured the significant and rigid aspects that form the concept. These aspects are positive comparisons, which are illustrated as the type of situations that people confront and consider as less intense when they actually seem to be harsh when they are viewed. The second element is selective ignoring, which is elucidated as looking around or seeking for a positive feature while being in a very disturbing surrounding. The third function is neither to prevent the event that induces stress nor to originate innate comprehension to questionable situation within the even.
These are most commonly referred to as coping mechanisms because they allow one to cope with overwhelming or painful emotions. Positive or healthy emotional regulation can include counting to 10 when angry, walking backwards when angry, talking with friends when upset, walking to relieve stress, journaling, and meditation (we will talk about the last one again). Each healthy coping mechanism encourages the person to think through their emotions and encourages the individual to use them again because they help and don't cause harm. Negative or unhealthy emotional regulation includes drinking alcohol or using substances, cutting, bottling it up, denial, and lashing out. These are not so good because they can cause injury and drive others away.
Sigmund Freud (1894, 1896) stated that “Defense mechanisms are psychological strategies that are unconsciously used to protect a person from anxiety arising from unacceptable thoughts or feelings”. We use defense mechanisms to protect ourselves from feelings of anxiety or guilt, which arise because we feel threatened, or because our id or superego becomes too demanding. They are not under our conscious control, and are non-voluntarist. Karen Horney (1940s) "developed her mature theory in which individuals cope with the anxiety produced by feeling unsafe, unloved, and undervalued by disowning their spontaneous feelings and developing elaborate strategies of defense. “Coping mechanisms are used to manage an external situation that is creating problems for an
Natural disasters are a leading cause of human mortality, damage to private and public property, the deterioration of human health and environmental degradation. Natural disaster impact and disaster intensity is similar across developed and developing countries, but developed countries have better disaster management and advanced disaster warning systems to prevent the post and pre disaster impact compared to developing nations. Evidence shows that the USA has faced the highest number of disaster events (506 reported events between 1974-2003) compared to any other country, but less number of people have become victims of these disaster events (4.5 million between1974-2003). On the other hand, developing countries like India and Bangladesh
The objective was to determine the occupational stress and coping strategies used by nurses to overcome workplace stress. The tools used were Job Stress Index and Coping Checklist. The findings revealed that majority (63%) of nurses were highly stressed, whereas 37% expressed moderate stress. Different coping strategies were used by nurses such as discussion with spouse, problem solving and engaging themselves in hobbies like reading, music etc. The results showed strong negative correlation (r = -0.920) between job stress and use of coping strategies by