This statement brings to light an important constant in the study of political anthropology: the manner in which the design of the political structure of colonial rule was instrumental in the molding of the social imagination of the colonizer and the ruled or colonized. Colonialism has left behind an indelible print of the face of the world, thus ensuring that social vocabulary and political institutions will be marred (overtly or subtly) by it. To a large extent, the outburst of political anthropology came both late and its popularity short lived; its heyday was the 1960s and its recent rediscovery came hand in hand with the resurgence of examinations of power (Vincent, 2002). Prior to this, anthropology went hand in hand as a tool of empire. This is underlined in the understanding of the political as something disparate from the cultural – “We attempt to discover some of the general principles in political manoeuvre which transcend cultures and which provide questions which could be tools of research in a variety of cultures” (Bailey, 1969).
The development of thought led to the condition of the political science being a multidiscipline rooted in philosophy and theory. Despite the fact that conflicts arise, political philosophy with its revival continuously characterize an aspect of political science being value-laden. Political philosophy might have been disregarded for its conception of reflection as well as the values and even questioned for its relevance in the field. However, it is for a fact that in order for a discipline to grow, it must look back to its origin in order to find its identity and true essence. The study of politics characterized by changing theories and methods as well as the existence of political philosophy as its bedrock serves as a reminder that political science is a field not limited to the ideal conception rather, the field seeks to tackle the ideal and provide practical methods and knowledge to obtain the definition of the
The shifts were able to produced three evolving status for political philosophy starting from its formation up to the present times. For its first status, political philosophy was held in veneration after its promising formation when it gave way to the formation of political theory. Through this the latter enterprise became the most prominent activity in the study of politics. Also, it was able to prescribe certain norms on the political order in a more systematic way. The next status of political philosophy, suffered a dangerous position of being eradicated in the inquiry of politics because of the behavioral revolution.
The behaviourist perspective was the most scientific out of them all and the psychodynamic approach was the least, I believe this because the behaviourist approach outcomes were based on the experiments that were conducted and the psychodynamic approach was about the unconscious mind and dreams, none of it could be scientifically proven as we cannot prove what is happening in the mind which means it is not credible. The experiments that were undertaken in these theories, perspectives and approaches some were more ethical than others I believe the humanistic approach use the most ethical experiments as they were used in the right way and for good reason, I think the biological perspective was the unethical as they did experiments on people
The Behavioural Perspective believes that all behaviour is learn through environment through classical and operant conditioning. TP has also been unemployed from work for 8 years after taking a redundancy package from his job in the bank. He also dropped out of college 2 years into it. The Behaviourist approach might contribute this to the fact that he was never rewarded for the work he did. They believe that learning can occur through rewards and punishment, and seeing as TP has no one there to reward or punish him in his adolescence life, maybe this can contribute to why he seems to have took the easy way out in his job and
Behaviorist theory is about learning by repetition, the more the repetition the more the person will learn. The behaviorist theory tells that the human being can acquire all behaviors and habits through conditions that happen during the interaction with what has surrounded them or ‘the environment’. Behaviorists believe that human responses to environmental stimuli shape their behaviors. According to Schuman “Behaviorism” the behaviorist theory focuses on a new behavioral pattern that it’s repeated until it becomes a habit. Pavlov’s experiment was about repetition, he trained a dog by ringing a bell in some kind of a situation procedure.
Actually epistemological perspective shows the connection with reality and research. In order for dealing with a management research problem may we have to generalize the issue or be specific to the issue, epistemological perspective take care both aspect for getting better knowledge about the particular
An alternative is an anti-positivism approach where the researcher recognizes the impact that social conditions and perceptions may have on the subject of research. This mostly leads to interview type of data collection where the respondents’ positions influence the findings. The paradigm that will be used in this study is an anti-positivism paradigm since the customers’
Behaviourist Approach Behaviourism was founded by John B Watson. It says that scientific psychology should study only observable behaviour. He told that psychologists shouldn’t study consciousness altogether and should focus exclusively on behaviours that could observed directly.Behaviour referred to any kind of observable response or activity by an organism. Behaviourism views organisms as controlled by by the environment in which it is present and specifically that we are the result of what we hve learned from our environment. It denies the existence of organisms learning or acquiring any kind of trait or character through genetic inheritance.